MR  imaging by 3D T1-weighted black blood sequences may improve delineation of therapy-naive high-grade gliomas

AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the value of contrast-enhanced (CE) turbo spin echo black blood (BB) sequences for imaging of therapy-naive high-grade gliomas (HGGs).MethodsConsecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed World Health Organization (WHO) grade III or IV gliomas and no oncological treatment prior to index imaging (March 2019 to January 2020) were retrospectively included. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  at 3 Tesla comprised CE BB and CE turbo field echo (TFE) sequences. The lack/presence of tumor-related contrast enhancement and satellite lesions were evaluated by two readers. Sharper delineation of tumor boundaries (1, bad; 2, intermediate; 3, good delineation) and vaster expansion of HGGs into the adjacent brain parenchyma on CE BB imaging were the endpoints. Furthermore, contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated and compared between sequences.ResultsFifty-four patients were included (mean age: 61.2  ± 15.9 years, 64% male). The vast majority of HGGs (51/54) showed contrast enhancement in both sequences, while two HGGs as well as one of six detected satellite lesions were depicted in CE BB imaging only. Tumor boundaries were significantly sharper (R1: 2.43 ± 0.71 vs. 2.73 ± 0.6 2,p 
Source: European Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsNovel nano-enhanced radiotherapy with gadolinium-containing nanoparticles is ideally suited for implementation on an MRI-linac, allowing a workflow with time-of-treatment imaging. Live irradiations using this treatment workflow, carried out for the first time at the Australian MRI-linac, confirm the safety and feasibility of performing MRI-guided radiotherapy with AGuIX® nanoparticles. Follow-up studies are needed to demonstrate on an MRI-linac the radiation enhancement effects previously shown with conventional radiotherapy.
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
The objective of this meta-analysis was to analyze the impact of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) on pediatric brain tumor surgery with regard to the frequency of histopathologic entities, additional resections secondary to iMRI, rate of gross total resections (GTR) in glioma surgery, extent of resection (EoR) in supra- and infratentorial compartment, surgical site infections (SSIs), and neurologic outcome after surgery. Methods MEDLINE/PubMed Service was searched for the terms “intraoperative MRI,” “pediatric,” “brain,” “tumor,” “glioma,” ...
Source: Journal of Neurological Surgery Part A: Central European Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
In this study, the syngenic, orthotopic GL261 mouse glioma model was used to evaluate the effects of KD on the metabolic responses of the tumor using 7T magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy. GL261 cells were injected into the caudate nucleus of mice. Following implantation, animals were fed with standard chow or underwent a KD. 18 days after initiating the diet, mice fed with KD displayed significantly higher plasmatic levels of ketone bodies and survived longer than those fed with the standard diet. Decreased concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid, N-Acetyl-Aspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate were found i...
Source: Nutrition and Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Nutr Cancer Source Type: research
Diffuse midline glioma (DMG) in children is a highly aggressive, malignant brain tumor that is fatal when relapsed. Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) is a high-priority antigen target for cancer immunotherapy. We hereby report on a pediatric patient who had DMG that regrew after chemoradiotherapy and underwent WT1 peptide vaccination. A 13-year-old Japanese boy presented with vertigo, diplopia, and right hemiplegia at the initial visit to another hospital, where he was diagnosed with DMG by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); DMG was categorized to histological grade IV glioma. The patient underwent radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temo...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our approach allows innate immune cell tracking by MRI and multiphoton microscopy in the same animal to longitudinally investigate innate immune cell dynamics in the TME.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Conclusions: The present study further illustrated the novel mechanism of the ATRX/PARP1 axis contributing to TMZ resistance. Our results provided substantial new evidence that PARP inhibitor might be a potential adjuvant agent in overcoming ATRX mediated TMZ resistance in glioma.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
AbstractDiffuse gliomas are infiltrative primary brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite multimodal treatment. Maximum safe resection is recommended whenever feasible. The extent of resection (EOR) is positively correlated with survival. Identification of glioma tissue during surgery is difficult due to its diffuse nature. Therefore, glioma resection is imaging-guided, making the choice for imaging technique an important aspect of glioma surgery. The current standard for resection guidance in non-enhancing gliomas is T2 weighted or T2w-fluid attenuation inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in enhanci...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
In conclusion, BB imaging is not inferior to conventional TFE imaging for EOR assessment, but may significantly reduce scanning time for iMRI whilst increasing diagnostic confidence. Furthermore, given the better depiction of contrast-enhancing tumor residual spread and borders, BB imaging could support achieving complete macroscopic resection in patients suffering from HGG, which is clinically relevant as an optimal EOR is correlated to prolonged survival.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractHere, we report on a 28-year old male patient presenting with neck and shoulder pain, dysesthesia of all four limbs and hypesthesia of both hands, without motor deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intradural, intramedullary mass of the cervical spinal cord of 6.4  cm length and 1.7 cm diameter. The patient underwent surgical resection. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation showed pleomorphic glial tumor cells, mitoses, calcifications, and atypical ganglioid cells compatible with the morphology of anaplastic ganglioglioma (WHO Grade III). Extensiv e molecular workup revealedH3F3A K27M,...
Source: Brain Tumor Pathology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractAccurate and fully automatic brain tumor grading from volumetric 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential procedure in the field of medical imaging analysis for full assistance of neuroradiology during clinical diagnosis. We propose, in this paper, an efficient and fully automatic deep multi-scale three-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D CNN) architecture for glioma brain tumor classification into low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG) using the whole volumetric T1-Gado MRI sequence. Based on a 3D convolutional layer and a deep network, via small kernels, the proposed architecture...
Source: Journal of Digital Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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