Emissions of toxic gases and aerosols in southern Africa observed during the 2019 JJASO period

AbstractThere are several different types of sources responsible for the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and aerosols in Africa. These emissions make the African continent vulnerable to the impacts on climate change, human health and the environment. It has been shown that the southern African emissions are dominant in the winter season (JJA). However, few studies have been done to study the winter and spring season in unison to understand these emissions. Therefore, in this study, both satellite data, such as Sentinel-5P and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), and reanalysis data from Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2), were used to study emissions in the 2019 JJASO period. Furthermore, the sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK) test was used to study the trends of SO2, CO, Angstrom exponent and UV aerosol index data during the 2019 JJASO period. The results from sentinel-5P showed the dominance of CO and NO2 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and dominance of SO2 and NO2 in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). These emissions were largely from wildfires and coal-fired power stations, respectively. However, an SO2 hot spot was also observed over the DRC region which was found to be from an active volcano. CALIPSO data agreed with these observations and further showed the maximum vertical distribution of these aerosols and gases to ...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

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Conclusion: The incidence of visual dysfunction in patients with CO poisoning was high, the clinical symptoms were rich and diverse, the duration of disease was long, and the prognosis was poor. Thus, the relevant ophthalmological examination and intervention treatment should be perfected as soon as possible. PMID: 33029389 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
This article reviews the clinically relevant aspects of some of the more important subacute toxic encephalopathy syndromes caused by inorganic to xins, carbon monoxide, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, and psychiatric medications.
Source: Neurologic Clinics - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
The synthesis, isolation and crystal structures of nickel(II) carbonyl, acetonitrile and ammonia complexes supported by a dianionic, pyridine dipyrrolide pincer ligand [pyrr2py]2 − , namely, carbonyl[2,2 ′ -(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(3,5-di-p-tolylpyrrolido- κ N)]nickel(II), [Ni(C41H33N3)(CO)], ammine[2,2 ′ -(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(3,5-di-p-tolylpyrrolido- κ N)]nickel(II), [Ni(C41H33N3)(NH3)], and (acetonitrile- κ N)[2,2 ′ -(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(3,5-di-p-tolylpyrrolido- κ N)]nickel(II), [Ni(C41H33N3)(CH3CN)], as well as the free ligand 2,6-bis(3,5-di-p-tolylpyrrol-2-yl)pyridine, ...
Source: Acta Crystallographica Section E - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: crystal structure nickel pincer ligand N-donors carbon monoxide research communications Source Type: research
AbstractGibbs free energy minimization is employed to carry out thermodynamic equilibrium analysis studies of mixtures containing methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen ideal gases, and possibly solid carbon. The employed global minimization approach represents a general, unifying, conceptual framework that allows reaction and phase equilibrium analysis to be simultaneously carried out in the atom ‐mol fraction space(aH,  aO), thus capturing in a comprehensive manner the equilibrium behavior of a number of industrially important processes, such as methane reforming (steam, dry, energetically...
Source: AIChE Journal - Category: Science Authors: Tags: PROCESS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Source Type: research
Synlett DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1707308 A Ni(0)-catalyzed intramolecular carbonylative cycloaddition between 1,5-yne-imines and carbon monoxide (CO) is disclosed. When Ni(CO)3PCy3 was employed as a pre-catalyst, a variety of polycyclic α,β-unsaturated γ-lactams were prepared in up to 78% yield with 100% atom efficiency. Aza-nickelacycles, generated by the oxidative cyclization of yne-imines on the Ni(0) center, were experimentally confirmed as key intermediates. Moreover, diastereoselective transformations of the obtained products to afford highly substituted polycyclic γ-lactams with three contiguous ca...
Source: Synlett - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: cluster Source Type: research
Authors: Versaci F, Gaspardone A, Danesi A, Ferranti F, Mancone M, Mariano E, Rotolo F, Musto C, Proietti I, Berni A, Trani C, Sergi SC, Speciale G, Tanzilli G, Tomai F, Di Giosa A, Marchegiani G, Calcagno S, Romagnoli E, Frati G, Biondi-Zoccai G Abstract BACKGROUND: Strong epidemiologic evidence has highlighted the role of pollution, on top of adverse climate features, as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. However, mechanistic proof that reducing pollution may be beneficial to prevent atherothrombotic events is limited. We aimed at appraising the impact of temporary traffic bans in a large metropolitan area on th...
Source: Panminerva Medica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Panminerva Med Source Type: research
The advancements in technological innovations and the utilizations of some technological products or research outcomes have adversely affected the environment and in consequence, continuously pose serious threats to future survival of humans. To counter th...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Ergonomics, Human Factors, Anthropometrics, Physiology Source Type: news
The influence of breath sampling on exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and related pulmonary gas exchange parameters is investigated in a study with 32 healthy non-smokers. Mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and well-controlled online sampling is used to precisely measure mouth- and nose-exhaled CO expirograms at exhalation flow rates (EFRs) of 250, 120 and 60 ml s −1 , and for 10 s of breath-holding followed by exhalation at 120 ml s −1 . A trumpet model with axial diffusion is employed to fit simulated exhalation profiles to the experimental expirograms, which provides equilibrium airwa...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Tin dioxide (SnO2) has intrinsic characteristics that do not favor its photocatalytic activity. However, we evidenced that surface modification can positively influence its performance for CO2 photoreduction in the gas phase. The hydroxylation of the SnO2 surface played a role in the CO2 affinity decreasing its reduction potential. The results showed that a certain selectivity for methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and ethylene (C2H4) is related to different SnO2 hydrothermal annealing. The best performance was seen for SnO2 annealed at 150oC, with a production of 20.4 µmol g-1 for CH4 and 16.45 &...
Source: Chemphyschem - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemphyschem Source Type: research
New J. Chem., 2020, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/D0NJ04050A, PaperGesiane Pinha de Sousa, Cristine Santos Oliveira, Érico Teixeira Neto, Fernando Aparecido Sigoli, Italo Odone Mazali In this work, as-synthesized SBA-15 was used as a support for CeO2 and Au nanoparticles (NPs), in order to stabilize them and to promote the metal/oxide interface contact. CeO2 NPs... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
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