One disease, many faces-typical and atypical presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection-related COVID-19 disease

Since the appearance of the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) and related coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China in December 2019, a very high number of small and large patient series have been published in literature from around the world. Even though the classical presentation of COVID-19 is one with respiratory symptoms with or without pneumonia that can be self-limiting or evolve into severe respiratory distress syndrome with multiple organ failure, and secondary bacterial sepsis, a large body of evidence suggests a plethora of other types of clinical presentation. In this exhaustive review, we reviewed all of the published literature on COVID-19 to identify different types of clinical presentations affecting various organ systems, to provide an in-depth analysis that may prove useful for clinicians and health-workers on the frontline, battling the severe pandemic.
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Authors: Batista RCS, Arruda CVB, Cassimiro M, Gominho L, Moura AC, Albuquerque DS, Romeiro K Abstract As early as December 2019 in the province of Hubei, China, contamination of patients with pneumonia of an unknown etiology occurred. These patients presented with symptoms such as coughing, sore throat, malaise, diarrhea, high fever, and dyspnea. This emerging disease was named COVID-19 due to being part of the group of coronaviruses (CoVs) belonging to the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the Coronaviridae family and in the Nidovirales order. COVID-19 is most commonly transmitted through speech, coughing, sneezin...
Source: The Scientific World Journal - Category: Science Tags: ScientificWorldJournal Source Type: research
Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world, resulting in a pandemic with high mortality. There are no effective treatments for the management of severe COVID-19 and current therapeutic trials are focused on antiviral therapy and attenuation of hyper-inflammation with anti-cytokine therapy. Severe COVID-19 pneumonia shares some pathological similarities with severe bacterial pneumonia and sepsis. In particular, it disrupts the haemostatic balance, which results in a procoagulant state locally in the lungs and syst...
Source: European Respiratory Review - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Reviews Source Type: research
Abstract Although COVID-19 is predominantly a respiratory disease, it is known to affect multiple organ systems. In this article, we highlight the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (the coronavirus causing COVID-19) on the central nervous system as there is an urgent need to understand the longitudinal impacts of COVID-19 on brain function, behaviour and cognition. Furthermore, we address the possibility of intergenerational impacts of COVID-19 on the brain, potentially via both maternal and paternal routes. Evidence from preclinical models of earlier coronaviruses has shown direct viral infiltration across the blood-brain bar...
Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Aust N Z J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract A novel disease, of unknown origin, causing a deadly pneumonia of human patients was reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province of China. Later called COVID-19, it rapidly spread across China and worldwide. Intensive research revealed that the etiological agent of the global COVID-19 pandemic was a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 genome contains typical coronavirus genes but the receptor binding domain (RBD) in the S protein is highly specific. The site for furin-like protease cleavage of the S protein into S1 and S2 subunits is also unique. Further analyses suggested that SARS-...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
AbstractThe novel coronavirus outbreak induces many concerns about the management of pregnancy, as well as rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. The very rapid spread of the infection throughout all inhabited continents leads to a fast-growing number of infected with SARS-CoV-2 and requires answers and special recommendations to the most vulnerable group of people: pregnant woman and patients on immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatment. A systematic literature search was performed in Embase, MEDLINE, and Scopus database for studies describing COVID-19 infection in pregnant women diagnosed with rheumatic and muscul...
Source: Rheumatology International - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
The recent pandemic of coronavirus infectious illness 2019 (COVID19) triggered by SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread around the globe, generating in severe events an acute, highly lethal pneumonia and death. In the past two hitherto similar CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) also gained universal attention as they produced clinical symptoms similar to those of SARS-CoV-2 utilizing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) to go into the cells. COVID-19 may also present with overtly neurological symptoms. The pro...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has elicited a swift response by the scientific community to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced lung injury and develop effective therapeutics. Clinical data indicate that severe COVID-19 most commonly manifests as viral pneumonia-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a clinical entity mechanistically understood best in the context of influenza A virus-induced pneumonia. Similar to influenza, advanced age has emerged as the leading host risk factor for developing severe COVID-19. In this review we ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Back to Basics Source Type: research
Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) recognized a novel coronavirus as the causative agent of a new form of pneumonia. It was subsequently named COVID-19 and reported as the source of a respiratory disease occurrence starting in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. It has been affirmed a public health emergency of international significance by the World Health Organization. It is regarded as a subset of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS); COVID-19 is triggered by a betacoronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, which affects the lower respiratory trac...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
This article focuses on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child health in sub-Saharan Africa. We review the epidemiology of major pediatric diseases and, referencing modeling projections, discuss the short- and long-term impact of the pandemic on major disease control. We deliberate on potential complications of SARS-CoV-2 co-infections/co-morbidities and identify critical social and ethical issues. Furthermore, we highlight the paucity of COVID-19 data and clinical trials in this region and the lack of child participants in ongoing studies. Lastly, approaches and interventions to mitigate the pandemic's impact on chi...
Source: Pediatric Research - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prioritized the development of small-animal models for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We adapted a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by serial passaging in the respiratory tract of aged BALB/c mice. The resulting mouse-adapted strain at passage 6 (called MASCp6) showed increased infectivity in mouse lung and led to interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory responses in both young and aged mice after intranasal inoculation. Deep sequencing revealed a panel of adaptive mutations potentially associated with the increased virulence. In parti...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Microbiology r-articles Source Type: news
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