Role of autophagy in nerve cell apoptosis in mice infected with street rabies virus

AbstractRabies is an important zoonotic disease in Iran. Autophagy is a process that maintains homeostasis and can be used as an innate defense mechanism against viruses. Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death induced by physiological and pathological conditions. The crosstalk of autophagy and apoptosis plays a key role in rabies virus infection. In the current study, NMRI mice intra-cranially received 3-Methyl Adenine (3-MA), rapamycin, street rabies virus (SRABV) and drugs plus SRABV. SRABV andMap1lc3,Beclin-1,Atg5 gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was carried out via LC3 protein staining as an autophagy marker, and apoptotic cell death was measured using a TUNEL assay.Map1lc3, Beclin-1 and Atg5 genes expression was significantly increased in drug-plus-SRBV-treated tissues compared to control at 24 hpi.Map1lc3 andAtg5 gene expression showed a slight change in the drugs-plus-virus group compared with the control at 72 hpi. The presence of LC3 in the tissues of the group treated with rapamycin plus SRBV confirmed induction of autophagy, but it was not present in the tissues treated with 3-MA plus SRBV. Our data revealed that apoptosis was induced only in the groups receiving the SRBV or rapamycin or both at 24 hpi. Apoptosis was observed after 72 hours, when the drugs ’ effect had disappeared in all but the autophagy inhibitor group. Understanding the interaction of SRABV with autophagy pathway genes and its effect on host ce...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research

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Charles E. Rupprecht Pathogen discovery contributes to our knowledge of bat-borne viruses and is linked to the heightened interest globally in bats as recognised reservoirs of zoonotic agents. The transmission of lyssaviruses from bats-to-humans, domestic animals, or other wildlife species is uncommon, but interest in these pathogens remains due to their ability to cause an acute, progressive, invariably fatal encephalitis in humans. Consequently, the detection and characterisation of bat lyssaviruses continues to expand our knowledge of their phylogroup definition, viral diversity, host species association, geograp...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
licour Guy Baele Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease which is caused by negative strand RNA-viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus. Within this genus, rabies viruses circulate in a diverse set of mammalian reservoir hosts, is present worldwide, and is almost always fatal in non-vaccinated humans. Approximately 59,000 people are still estimated to die from rabies each year, leading to a global initiative to work towards the goal of zero human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030, requiring scientific efforts from different research fields. The past decade has seen a much increased use of phylogeographic and p...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In France, apparently healthy dogs and cats that bite humans must undergo an observation period of 15 days with three veterinary visits to ascertain that they remain healthy, indicating that no zoonotic transmission of rabies virus occurred via salivary pr...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1538: Retrospective Enhanced Bat Lyssavirus Surveillance in Germany between 2018–2020 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13081538 Authors: Antonia Klein Sten Calvelage Kore Schlottau Bernd Hoffmann Elisa Eggerbauer Thomas Müller Conrad M. Freuling Lyssaviruses are the causative agents for rabies, a zoonotic and fatal disease. Bats are the ancestral reservoir host for lyssaviruses, and at least three different lyssaviruses have been found in bats from Germany. Across Europe, novel lyssaviruses were identified in bats recently and occasional spillover infections in other mammals and ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Communication Source Type: research
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2021 Jul 7. doi: 10.1111/brv.12774. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe crisis generated by the emergence and pandemic spread of COVID-19 has thrown into the global spotlight the dangers associated with novel diseases, as well as the key role of animals, especially wild animals, as potential sources of pathogens to humans. There is a widespread demand for a new relationship with wild and domestic animals, including suggested bans on hunting, wildlife trade, wet markets or consumption of wild animals. However, such policies risk ignoring essential elements of the problem as well as alienating and inc...
Source: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):259-269. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTOne Health (OH) is emphasized globally to tackle the (re)emerging issues at the human-animal-ecosystem interface. However, the low awareness about zoonoses remain a challenge in global south, thus this study documented the health system contact and its effect on the awareness level of zoonoses in the urban community of Ahmedabad, India. A community-based household survey was conducted between October 2018 and July 2019. A total of 460 households (HHs) were surveyed from two zones and 23 wards of the city through cluster sampling. A structured, pilot-t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: research
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