Integrating Genetic and Genomic Analyses of Combined Health Data Across Ecotypes to Improve Disease Resistance in Indigenous African Chickens

In this study, we performed a joint analysis of two distinct Ethiopian indigenous chicken ecotypes to investigate the genomic architecture of important health and productivity traits and explore the feasibility of conducting genomic selection across-ecotype. Phenotypic traits considered were antibody response to Infectious Bursal Disease (IBDV), Marek’s Disease (MDV), Fowl Cholera (PM) and Fowl Typhoid (SG), resistance to Eimeria and cestode parasitism, and productivity [body weight and body condition score (BCS)]. Combined data from the two chicken ecotypes, Horro (n = 384) and Jarso (n = 376), were jointly analyzed for genetic parameter estimation, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic breeding value (GEBVs) calculation, genomic predictions, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and pathways analyses. Estimates of across-ecotype heritability were significant and moderate in magnitude (0.22–0.47) for all traits except for SG and BCS. GWAS identified several significant genomic associations with health and productivity traits. The WGS analysis revealed putative candidate genes and mutations for IBDV (TOLLIP, ANGPTL5, BCL9, THEMIS2), MDV (GRM7), SG (MAP3K21), Eimeria (TOM1L1) and cestodes (TNFAIP1, ATG9A, NOS2) parasitism, which warrant further investigation. Reliability of GEBVs increased compared to within-ecotype calculations but accuracy of genomic prediction did not, probably because the genetic distance between the two ecotypes offset the benefit from incr...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

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Abstract U.S. residents traveling internationally to regions with increased risk of infectious diseases infrequently seek pretravel health care. First- and second-generation immigrants traveling to their countries of origin and visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) have increased risk of certain infectious diseases and are more likely to participate in high-risk activities. In an online survey of 994 U.S. residents with two foreign-born parents who went on at least one international trip to an at-risk country (defined as having a typhoid vaccine recommendation) in the prior 3 years, respondents were questioned abo...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
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Source: Pediatric Research - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research
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Source: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Z Rheumatol Source Type: research
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Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: News Source Type: blogs
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Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
The burden of diarrheal diseases is very high, accounting for 1.7 to 5 billion cases per year worldwide. Typhoid Fever (TF) and Cholerare potentially life-threatening infectious diseases mainly transmitted through the consumption of food, drink or water that have been contaminated by the feces or urine of subjects excreting the pathogen. TF is mainly caused by Salmonella typhi whereas Cholera is caused by intestinal infection by the toxin-producing bacterium Vibrio cholerae. These diseases typically affect low- and middle-income countries where housing is overcrowded and wa...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
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Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
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Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized medicine Source Type: news
AbstractAlgeria, like all emerging countries, has been going through a health transition over the past 30  years or so, characterized by a drop in mortality rates, an increase in life expectancy and a change in the causes of death in favor of chronic non-communicable diseases. In the past, the country mainly faced infectious diseases such as typhoid, cholera and malaria. The prevalence of the latter ha s been significantly reduced thanks to the many social health and vaccination programs undertaken by the health authorities. As a result of this epidemiological transition, we are witnessing a growing increase in the in...
Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research
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