Estimation of Leishmania spp. infection in asymptomatic people from Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India by antigen-antibody and skin testing.

Estimation of Leishmania spp. infection in asymptomatic people from Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India by antigen-antibody and skin testing. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2020;62:e67 Authors: Johanson GH, Amato VS, Ribeiro VST, Tuon FF Abstract Asymptomatic VL is a concern, considering the risk of transmission in highly endemic areas due to human-to-human transmission. The aim of this study was to report the sero-epidemiological prevalence in Bihar, India, a highly endemic area of VL, using the leishmanin skin test (LST) and the direct agglutination test (DAT). This was a cross-sectional study performed in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India. Relatives of patients with VL were tested by LST and DAT. Other epidemiological data were evaluated and correlated with tests results. Forty individuals (either previous or current patients), and 109 household contacts were studied. There were 36% of male visceral leishmaniasis family members versus 17.57% of females visceral leishmaniasis family members, thus showing more males with symptomatic disease than females (p
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

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The objective of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the nine available diagnostic tests for human VL in HIV-infected and uninfected patients in Brazil. The perspective of analysis was the Brazilian public health system, and the outcome of interest was "cases diagnosed correctly". The costs of the tests were estimated using the microcosting technique, and comparisons were performed with decision trees. Sensitivity anal yses were explored applying variations in cost and effectiveness values. For VL diagnosis among HIV-uninfected patients, using blood samples for the rapid tests (RDTs), the n...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic infection caused by the protozoal parasite Leishmania, spread via the bloodstream to the reticuloendothelial system, through the bite of the sand fly. It is endemic in parts of Africa, South America, Asia, and Europe, including the Mediterranean. Here, we describe a case of VL that was initially diagnosed as Q fever based on positive Coxiella burnetii serology and showed a partial response to doxycycline treatment. PMID: 32959758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract The kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has succeeded in bringing the reported numbers of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases from hundreds during the 1980s and 1990s to zero case in 2019. The endemicity of VL has been confined mainly to the Southwest regions, namely Jazan and Aseer regions. Leishmania donovani species have been identified as the causative species of VL, while L. infantum have been isolated only from dogs in the endemic areas. Many species of sand flies were caught in Southwest, but P. orientalis is the probable transmitter of the disease. The black rat (Rattus ratus) was found to be contributing...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
In this study isolates from human and canine leishmaniasis (Hum1 and Can1) obtained in Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil were identified as L. infantum. The Hum1 and Can1 isolates exhibited typical promastigote growth pattern. Regarding morphological features Can1 isolate differed in cell size. The infectivity in vitro of both isolatesis lower compared to the reference strain of L. infantum. Moreover, the in vivo infectivity of the three parasites is similar in Balb/c mice. The Hum1 isolate is more sensitive to leishmanial drugs (amphotericin B, miltefosine and glucantime) than the Can1 isolate when inside human mac...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research
Authors: Rezaei Z, Azarang E, Shahabi S, Omidian M, Pourabbas B, Sarkari B Abstract It has been documented that the genotypic traits in symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) may be different. The current study aimed to find out and compare the genotype and intraspecies diversity of Leishmania Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) from asymptomatic and symptomatic VL cases in southern Iran. Methods. Buffy coat samples from seven VL patients, with clinical signs and symptoms, and seven asymptomatic VL cases, were evaluated in this study. Samples of asymptomatic individuals were obtained fro...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research
Abstract Leishmania (L.) infantum is a vector-borne parasite currently endemic in several Southern countries of European Union (EU), and dogs represent the main reservoir and hosts. Data from clinical trials are inconsistent with respect to the efficacy of vaccination against L. infantum infection. Therefore, a quantitative synthesis via pairwise meta-analysis was performed in agreement with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) to increase the strength of evidence and assess the real efficacy profile of vaccines against L. infantum currently approved in EU. Dat...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceOur findings confirm LST as a good tool for assessingL.major cryptic infection. However, the instability of the LST positivity in new foci should be considered as an important confounder of the outcome of this infection when developing a research protocol for vaccine trial.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
a LM Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an anthropozoonosis endemic in Brazil. We included 20 patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL and 20 healthy individuals to evaluate the expression levels of complement receptor 1 (CR1)/CD35 and CR3/CD11b on leukocytes in the peripheral blood and determine their correlation with the clinical state of patients. CR1/CD35 expression increased on CD11b+CD35+granulocytes of patients, while CR1/CD35 and CR3/CD11b expression levels increased on CD14+CD11b+CD35+ monocytes. Among patients, those with severe clinical state had higher expression of CR3/CD11b on CD14+monocytes. The...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract The likelihood of being bitten by sand flies infected with Leishmania (L.) donovani is considered to be high for all inhabitants living in the endemic areas, but only a small ratio of the population develop symptomatic visceral leishmanisis (VL). Since adequate activation of antimicrobial immune response plays a key role in control of pathogens early after infection we hypothesized that a dysfunction of essential cells of the immune system is associated with disease development after infection with L. donovani. In order to obtain insights into the capacity of leukocytes to respond to L. donovani, a whole ...
Source: Cytokine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research
In conclusion, it was revealed that L.tropica strains in our country may gain resistance to meglumine antimoniate in a short time. It is foreseen that if the patients living in our country or entering the country are treated inadequately and incompletely, there may be new, resistant leishmaniasis foci that may increase the number of resistant strains and cases rapidly. PMID: 32755520 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
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