The Role of C-Section in Mother-to-child Transmission of HBV The Role of C-Section in Mother-to-child Transmission of HBV

Does cesarean section and nonbreastfeeding prevent mother-to-child transmission in HBV-positive mothers who did not receive antiviral therapy during pregnancy?Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Gastroenterology Journal Article Source Type: news

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Publication date: November 2020Source: European Journal of Obstetrics &Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 254Author(s): Silvano Piffer, Antonio Mazza, Laura Dell’Anna
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Abstract Phthalic acid esters (PAE) are widely used during chemical synthesis and do not form covalent linkages with products. It has been reported that exposure to PAE affects the immune response. However, their effect on antibody concentrations in children is still under investigation. We aimed to examine the association between early-life phthalate exposure and antibody concentrations in children in a longitudinal birth cohort established in 2000-2001. We recruited 398 neonates in central Taiwan and followed them up every 2-3 years, with various antibody-related studies at 11- and 14-year follow-ups. Seven...
Source: Environment International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research
Vertical transmission of viral infections during pregnancy are major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestations vary depending on the viral agent and the gestational age of pregnancy at infection. A viral infection in the first two trimesters of pregnancy can lead to congenital malformation or fetal death (MMWR 2001; Tan and Koren 2006; Ornoy and Ergaz 2017). Viral infection towards the end of the pregnancy can lead to preterm birth or neonatal morbidity and mortality (Brown et al.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
HORSHAM, PA, September 30, 2020 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved SIMPONI ARIA® (golimumab) for patients 2 years of age and older for the treatment of active pJIA and has extended the PsA indication for this same patient population. “This latest FDA approval of SIMPONI ARIA for pediatric use in active pJIA and active PsA not only brings a new option to young patients living with these diseases but also adds to the growing body of evidence for this treatment,” said Mathai Mammen, M.D., Ph.D., Glob...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Immunological adaptations in pregnancy allow maternal tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus but also increase maternal susceptibility to infection. At implantation, the endometrial stroma, glands, arteries and immune cells undergo anatomical and functional transformation to create the decidua, the specialized secretory endometrium of pregnancy. The maternal decidua and the invading fetal trophoblast constitute a dynamic junction that facilitates a complex immunological dialogue between the two. The decidual and peripheral immune systems together assume a pivotal role in regulating the critical balance between tolerance an...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Nigeria contributes significantly to the global burden of HIV, Hepatitis B and C infections, either singly or in combinations, despite progress in HIV care regionally and globally. Although some limited data o...
Source: Reproductive Health - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research
The maternal immune system engages in a fine balancing act during pregnancy by simultaneously maintaining immune tolerance to the fetus and immune responses to protect against invading organisms. Pregnancy is an intricately orchestrated process where effector immune cells with fetal specificity are selectively silenced. This requires a sustained immune suppressive state not only by expansion of maternal Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) but also by leaning the immune clock toward a Th2 dominant arm. The fetus, known as a semi-allograft or temporary-self, leads to remission of autoimmune hepatitis during pregnancy. However,...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is recommended as part of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant women with HIV and as monotherapy for pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection at high risk of transmitting infection to their infants. Tenofovir (TFV) plasma exposures are reduced during pregnancy; however, concomitant antiretrovirals and the viral infection itself can also influence TFV pharmacokinetics. Our aim was to compare TFV pharmacokinetics in pregnant women receiving TDF-based ART, with or without a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (r/PI), to pregnant women with HBV receiv...
Source: The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: J Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research
Discussion Oral ulcers are common problems seen by dentists but pediatricians also see them. Usually families have are concerned because they are painful and acute. Ulcers are sometime noticed by the physician and not the family as in the case of herpangina or hand-foot and mouth disease. Chronic or recurrent ulcerations present less commonly and therefore it may be more difficult to determine their etiology. Many of the systemic disease causes of oral ulcers are overall infrequent and/or not common in the pediatric age range. Ulcers can be classified in several ways but acute ulcers are usually painful and last less tha...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
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