Mapping the Scene and Object Processing Networks by Intracranial EEG

Human perception and cognition are based predominantly on visual information processing. Much of the information regarding neuronal correlates of visual processing has been derived from functional imaging studies, which have identified a variety of brain areas contributing to visual analysis, recognition, and processing of objects and scenes. However, only two of these areas, namely the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the lateral occipital complex (LOC), were verified and further characterized by intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG). iEEG is a unique measurement technique that samples a local neuronal population with high temporal and anatomical resolution. In the present study, we aimed to expand on previous reports and examine brain activity for selectivity of scenes and objects in the broadband high-gamma frequency range (50–150 Hz). We collected iEEG data from 27 epileptic patients while they watched a series of images, containing objects and scenes, and we identified 375 bipolar channels responding to at least one of these two categories. Using K-means clustering, we delineated their brain localization. In addition to the two areas described previously, we detected significant responses in two other scene-selective areas, not yet reported by any electrophysiological studies; namely the occipital place area (OPA) and the retrosplenial complex. Moreover, using iEEG we revealed a much broader network underlying visual processing than that described to date, u...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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We present three siblings with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and co-morbidities due to ELFN1 gene mutation; this is the first report in literature defining the human phenotype of ELFN1 gene mutation. Clinical, electrophysiological, and radiological findings along with comprehensive genetic studies of the patients and their family members are presented. Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, autistic features, pyramidal signs, joint laxity, and dysmorphic features are the characteristic findings of this new clinical entity, involving mainly nervous system and possibly connective tissue. Whole exome sequenc...
Source: European Journal of Medical Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Aug 25;142:112021. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTValproic acid (VPA) is an approved drug for managing epileptic seizures, bipolar disorders, and migraine. VPA has been shown to elevate the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain through competitive inhibition of GABA transaminase, thus promoting the availability of synaptic GABA and facilitating GABA-mediated responses. VPA, which is a small chain of fatty acids, prevents histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDACs play a crucial role in chromatin remodeling and gene expression through posttranslational chan...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Physical and psychiatric diagnoses are common one year prior to first diagnosis of epilepsy in administrative claims data. Compared to patients without DRE, those who develop DRE within one-year post initial diagnosis demonstrated a higher burden of disease.PMID:34425326 | DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108243
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated metabolism of lamotrigine in chimeric NOG-TKm30 mice transplanted with human hepatocytes (humanised-liver mice).Substantial lamotrigine N2-glucuronidation activities were observed in the liver microsomes from humanised-liver mice, humans, marmosets, and rabbits, compared to those from monkeys, minipigs, guinea pigs, rats, and mice.Lamotrigine N2-glucuronidation activities in the liver microsomes from humanised-liver mice were dose-dependently inhibited by hecogenin, a specific inhibitor of the human UGT1A4. The major metabolite in the hepatocytes from humanised-liver mice and humans was lamot...
Source: Xenobiotica - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the metabolism of lamotrigine in chimeric NOG-TKm30 mice transplanted with human hepatocytes (humanised-liver mice).Substantial lamotrigine N2-glucuronidation activities were observed in the liver microsomes from humanised-liver mice, humans, marmosets, and rabbits, compared to those from monkeys, minipigs, guinea pigs, rats, and mice. Lamotrigine N2-glucuronidation activities in the liver microsomes from humanised-liver mice were dose-dependently inhibited by hecogenin, a specific inhibitor of the human UGT1A4.The major metabolite in the hepatocytes from humanised-liver mice and humans was l...
Source: Xenobiotica - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsDifferential diagnoses for bipolar disorder include depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, trauma-related disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and personality disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic options for the treatment of bipolar disorder include lithium, anti-epileptic medications, and atypical antipsychotics. In regard to women of childbearing age, consideration of risks, benefits, and alternative therapies is needed before initiating therapy.Practice ImplicationsCaring for patients with bipolar disorder, particularly women of childbearing age, requires careful differentiation of bipolar disorde...
Source: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
BackgroundC-reactive protein (CRP) has been used as a biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation in observational studies. We aimed to determine whether genetically determined CRP was associated with hundreds of human phenotypes to guide anti-inflammatory interventions.MethodsWe used individual data from the UK Biobank to perform a phenome-wide two-stage least squares (2SLS) Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis for CRP with 879 diseases. Summary-level data from the FinnGen consortium were utilized to perform phenome-wide two-sample MR analysis on 821 phenotypes. Systematic two-sample MR methods included MR-IVW, MR-WME, M...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Stepulak Valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid, VPA) is a short-chain fatty acid, a member of the group of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs). VPA has been successfully used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia for over 50 years. Numerous in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical studies suggest that this well-known anticonvulsant drug significantly inhibits cancer cell proliferation by modulating multiple signaling pathways. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. Despite significant progress in the treatment of BC, serious adverse effects, high toxicity to...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Absence seizures are generalized nonmotor epileptic seizures with abrupt onset and termination. Transient impairment of consciousness and spike-slow wave discharges (SWDs) in EEG are their characteristic manifestations. This type of seizure is severe in two common pediatric syndromes: childhood (CAE) and juvenile (JAE) absence epilepsy. The appearance of low-cost, portable EEG devices has paved the way for long-term, remote monitoring of CAE and JAE patients. The potential benefits of this kind of monitoring include facilitating diagnosis, personalized drug titration, and determining the duration of pharmacotherapy. Herein...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractEpilepsy is one of the most common and disabling chronic neurological disorders. Antiseizure medications (ASMs), previously referred to as anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drugs, are the mainstay of symptomatic epilepsy treatment. Epilepsy is a multifaceted complex disease and so is its treatment. Currently, about 30 ASMs are available for epilepsy therapy. Furthermore, several ASMs are approved therapies in nonepileptic conditions, including neuropathic pain, migraine, bipolar disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Because of this wide spectrum of therapeutic activity, ASMs are among the most often prescribed ...
Source: CNS Drugs - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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