The Growth of Eimeria tenella: Characterization and Application of Quantitative Methods to Assess Sporozoite Invasion and Endogenous Development in Cell Culture

In vitro development of the complete life cycle of Eimeria species has been achieved in primary cultures of avian epithelial cells with low efficiency. The use of immortalized cell lines simplifies procedures but only allows partial development through one round of parasite invasion and intracellular replication. We have assessed the suitability of Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells to support qualitative and quantitative studies on sporozoite invasion and intracellular development of Eimeria tenella. Analysis of parasite ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy and serial block face—scanning electron microscopy proved the suitability of the system to generate good quality schizonts and first-generation merozoites. Parasite protein expression profiles elucidated by mass spectrometry corroborated previous findings occurring during the development of the parasite such as the presence of alternative types of surface antigen at different stages and increased abundance of proteins from secretory organelles during invasion and endogenous development. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowed the tracking of development by detecting DNA division, whereas reverse transcription qPCR of sporozoite- and merozoite-specific genes could detect early changes before cell division and after merozoite formation, respectively. These results correlated with the analysis of development using ImageJ semi-automated image analysis of fluorescent parasites, demonstrating the suitability and...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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scalante AA Abstract Haemosporida are diverse vector-borne parasites associated with terrestrial vertebrates. Driven by the interest in species causing malaria (genus Plasmodium), the diversity of avian and mammalian haemosporidian species has been extensively studied, relying mostly on mitochondrial genes, particularly cytochrome b. However, parasites from reptiles have been neglected in biodiversity surveys. Reptilian haemosporidian parasites include Haemocystidium, a genus that shares morphological features with Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Here, the first complete Haemocystidium mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genom...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Abstract Shiny and screaming cowbirds are avian interspecific brood parasites that locate and prospect host nests in daylight and return from one to several days later to lay an egg during the pre-dawn twilight. Thus, during nest location and prospecting, both location information and visual features are available, but the latter become less salient in the low-light conditions when the nests are visited for laying. This raises the question of how these different sources of information interact, and whether this reflects different behavioural specializations across sexes. Differences are expected, because in shiny ...
Source: Animal Cognition - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Anim Cogn Source Type: research
Abstract Village chicken production, a traditional, small-scale, and extensive backyard poultry industry, has been profitable for local farmers in Myanmar. However, there is scanty information available concerning the infection of these chickens with avian pathogens, including haemoprotozoan parasites. In the present study, we provide the first report of microscopic detection and molecular identification of Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium parasites from seven different areas of Myanmar. Leucocytozoon gametocytes were detected in 17.6% (81/461) of the blood smears from village chickens. The nested polymerase chain rea...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2020Source: Molecular and Biochemical ParasitologyAuthor(s): Dandan Liu, Feiyan Wang, Liqin Cao, Lele Wang, Shijie Su, Zhaofeng Hou, Jinjun Xu, Junjie Hu, Jianping Tao
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
This study aimed to test if (i) megalomeronts are present during the development of the lineage hPHSIB1 of H. majoris and if (ii) they are similar to the other investigated lineages of this species in regard of their morphology and location in organs. One adult wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix, an Afrotropical migrant, naturally infected with H. majoris lineage hPHSIB1 was wild-caught after seasonal spring migration and screened using microscopic examination of blood films and histological sections of organs as well as using PCR-based testing. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis placed the lineages hPHSIB1, hPHYBOR04 and hP...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Haemosporidians (Apicomplexa, Protista) are obligate heteroxenous parasites of vertebrates and blood-sucking dipteran insects. Avian haemosporidians comprise more than 250 species traditionally classified into...
Source: Malaria Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
In a warmer and more globally connected Arctic, vector-borne pathogens of zoonotic importance may be increasing in prevalence in native wildlife. Recently, Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch ...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Alec B. Luro, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Patrice Baumhardt, and Mark E. Hauber Color and spatial vision are critical for recognition and discrimination tasks affecting fitness, including finding food and mates and recognizing offspring. For example, as a counter defense to avoid the cost of raising the unrelated offspring of obligate interspecific avian brood parasites, many host species routinely view, recognize, and remove the foreign egg(s) from their nests. Recent research has shown that host species visually attend to both chromatic and spatial pattern features of eggs; yet how hosts simultaneously integrate these fea...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
By Stephen LeahySep 2 2020 (IPS-Partners) Having reported on SARS, Ebola, Bird Flu (H5N1) outbreaks, as well as writing about efforts to combat HIV, I was horrified by what was going on in Wuhan, China last Jan mainly because of how fast this new SARS-CoV-2 virus spread. By early Feb it seemed likely there’d be a global pandemic and by the end of Feb I started to freak out as the pandemic took hold. I’ve never been to Wuhan or China nor seen anyone who had; and I hadn’t travelled any where recently. It was nearly impossible for me to have encountered the virus but that didn’t keep me from getting si...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Health Humanitarian Emergencies Source Type: news
Abstract Complex experimental studies of vertebrate host, vector, and parasite interactions are essential in understanding virulence, but are difficult or impossible to conduct if vector species are unknown. Subinoculation of erythrocytic meronts of avian malarial parasites into susceptible hosts can avoid this problem, but this approach omits early exoerythrocytic stages, e.g. cryptozoites and metacryptozoites, that normally develop from sporozoites. A fundamental question that has remained unanswered is whether blood stage and sporozoite-induced malarial infections lead to differences in the dynamics of parasite...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
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