Updates in Pediatric Glioma Pathology

Gliomas are a diverse group of primary central nervous system tumors with astrocytic, oligodendroglial, and/or ependymal features and are an important cause of morbidity/mortality in pediatric patients. Glioma classification relies on integrating tumor histology with key molecular alterations. This approach can help establish a diagnosis, guide treatment, and determine prognosis. New categories of pediatric glioma have been recognized in recent years, due to increasing application of molecular profiling in brain tumors. The aim of this review is to alert pediatric pathologists to emerging diagnostic concepts in pediatric glioma neuropathology, emphasizing the incorporation of molecular features into diagnostic practice.
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - Category: Pathology Authors: Source Type: research

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AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the value of contrast-enhanced (CE) turbo spin echo black blood (BB) sequences for imaging of therapy-naive high-grade gliomas (HGGs).MethodsConsecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed World Health Organization (WHO) grade III or IV gliomas and no oncological treatment prior to index imaging (March 2019 to January 2020) were retrospectively included. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  at 3 Tesla comprised CE BB and CE turbo field echo (TFE) sequences. The lack/presence of tumor-related contrast enhancement and satellite lesions were evaluated by two readers. Sharper delineat...
Source: European Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsRibociclib administered following radiotherapy is feasible in DIPG and DMG. Increased tumor necrosis may represent a treatment effect. These data warrant further prospective volumetric analyses of tumors with necrosis. Feasibility and stabilization findings support further investigation of ribociclib in combination therapies.Trial registrationNCT02607124.
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
High-grade gliomas (HGGs), including glioblastoma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, are amongst the most fatal brain tumors. These tumors are associated with a dismal prognosis with a median survival of le...
Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
The effect of pediatric glioma cells on the function of surrounding neurons during early development is unknown. We intrancranially injected patient ‐derived pediatric glioma cells in young pups and examined on the function of peritumoral neurons. Pediatric glioma cells induced changes in the intrinsic properties of periturmoral neurons, lowered the threshold of hyperexcitability and exhibited an early onset of depolarization block. AbstractEpileptic seizures are among the most common presenting symptom in patients with glioma. The etiology of glioma ‐related seizures is complex and not completely understood. Studies u...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Glioblastoma is a poorly immunogenic cancer, and the successes with recent immunotherapies in extracranial malignancies have, so far, not been translated to this devastating disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new strategies to convert the immunologically cold glioma microenvironment into a hot one to enable effective antitumor immunity. Using the L19 antibody, which is specific to a tumor-associated epitope of extracellular fibronectin, we developed antibody-cytokine fusions—immunocytokines—with interleukin-2 (IL2), IL12, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We showed that L19 accumulated in the tumor m...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
ConclusionsNovel nano-enhanced radiotherapy with gadolinium-containing nanoparticles is ideally suited for implementation on an MRI-linac, allowing a workflow with time-of-treatment imaging. Live irradiations using this treatment workflow, carried out for the first time at the Australian MRI-linac, confirm the safety and feasibility of performing MRI-guided radiotherapy with AGuIX® nanoparticles. Follow-up studies are needed to demonstrate on an MRI-linac the radiation enhancement effects previously shown with conventional radiotherapy.
Source: Cancer Nanotechnology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, we construct a novel prognostic model which provides new insights into glioma prognosis. The PDPN and TIMP1 may serve as potential biomarkers for prognosis of glioma.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
miR‑181d promotes cell proliferation via the IGF1/PI3K/AKT axis in glioma. Mol Med Rep. 2020 Nov;22(5):3804-3812 Authors: Tang D, Gao W, Yang J, Liu J, Zhao J, Ge J, Chen Q, Liu B Abstract Glioma is a malignant brain cancer that exhibits high invasive ability and poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miR)‑181d has been reported to be involved in the development of glioma. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether miR‑181d affected cellular progression by influencing the insulin like growth factor (IGF1)/PI3K/AKT axis. Western blot analysis was performed to analyze the expression leve...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Glioma is the prevalent aggressive primary brain tumor, with a very poor prognosis. The absence of advanced understanding of the roles played by the cells within the glioma microenvironment limits the development of effective drugs. A recent study indicates that periostin expressed by pericytes is crucial for glioma angiogenesis. Here, we describe succinctly the results and implications of this discovery in what we know about pericytes within the glioma microenvironment. The emerging knowledge from this work will benefit the development of therapies for gliomas. PMID: 33010018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research
Radiotherapy is an important therapeutic approach to treating malignant tumors of different localization, including brain cancer. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most aggressive brain tumor, which develops relapsed disease during the 1st year after the surgical removal of the primary node, in spite of active adjuvant radiochemotherapy. More and more evidence suggests that the treatment's success might be determined by the balance of expected antitumor effects of the treatment and its non-targeted side effects on the surrounding brain tissue. Radiation-induced damage of the GBM microenvironment might create tum...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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