Human Brain Organoid Models of Developmental Epilepsies.

Human Brain Organoid Models of Developmental Epilepsies. Epilepsy Curr. 2020 Sep;20(5):282-290 Authors: Nieto-Estévez V, Hsieh J Abstract Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures due to neuronal hyperactivity. A large proportion of epilepsy cases begin during childhood. Causes of epilepsy include stroke, infections, brain injury, genetic factors, or other factors that alter brain structure and development, but in up to 50% of cases the cause is unknown. Approximately 35% of patients have refractory seizures that do not respond to medication. Animal models and in vitro cultures have contributed to our understanding of epilepsy, but there is a clear need for better models to explore the human brain in normal and pathological conditions. Human pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technologies opened the door for new models for analyzing brain development and disease, especially conditions with a genetic component. Initially, PSCs were differentiated into 2-dimensional cultures of a homogenous population of neural cells, such as glutamatergic excitatory or γ-aminobutyric acidergic inhibitory neurons, as well as glial cells. Nevertheless, these cultures lacked the structure and complexity of a human brain. In the last decade, PSC technology has advanced to the next level through the development of 3-dimensional culture, called organoids. These organoids recapitulate features of the human brain that are m...
Source: Epilepsy Currents - Category: Neurology Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

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Source: Trends in Neurosciences - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In conclusion, while rs-fMRI use in clinical neuroradiology practice is limited, enthusiasm appears to be quite high and there are several possible avenues in which further research and development may facilitate its penetration into clinical practice. Introduction Techniques for quantifying spatial and temporal brain activity have developed rapidly since the first demonstrations that MRI could be used to measure modulations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) tissue contrast (1). The observation that MRI could be used to monitor temporally correlated low-frequency activity fluctuations in spatially remote brain a...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychological assessment can improve both diagnostic classification and prediction of long-term daily-life outcomes in patients across the lifespan. Future high-quality prospective cohort studies and randomized-controlled trials are necessary to demonstrate more definitively the incremental value of neuropsychological assessment in the management of patients with various neurological and other medical conditions. PMID: 31014166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Clinical Neuropsychologist - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Clin Neuropsychol Source Type: research
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Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Commentary Current Issue Source Type: research
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Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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