Autopsy findings in COVID-19-related deaths: a literature review
AbstractAlthough many clinical reports have been published, little is known about the pathological post-mortem findings from people who have died of the novel coronavirus disease. The need for postmortem information is urgent to improve patient management of mild and severe illness, and treatment strategies. The present systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) standards. A systematic literature search and a critical review of the collected studies were conducted. An electronic search of PubMed, Science Direct Scopus, Google Scholar, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) from database inception to June 2020 was performed. We found 28 scientific papers; the total amount of cases is 341. The major histological feature in the lung is diffuse alveolar damage with hyaline membrane formation, alongside microthrombi in small pulmonary vessels. It appears that there is a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism among COVID-19 decedents, suggesting endothelial involvement, but more studies are needed. A uniform COVID-19 post-mortem diagnostic protocol has not yet been developed. In a time in which international collaboration is essential, standardized diagnostic criteria are fundamental requirements.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a clinical manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Hypercoagulable state has been described as one of the hallmarks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and has been reported to manifest as pulmonary embolisms, deep vein thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis of the abdominal small vessels. Here we present cases of arterial and venous thrombosis pertaining to the head and neck in COVID-19 patients.
CONCLUSION: According to the Centers for Disease Control, common symptoms of human coronavirus include fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat, and headache. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, there are limited reports about headaches, one of the most common clinical manifestations. There are currently no studies that focus specifically on headache among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. PMID: 33017479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
AbstractThe rate of venous and arterial thrombotic events among patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SAR-CoV-2) is high. This may be due to a hypercoagulable state induced by the severe inflammation that results from the SAR-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to determine hypercoagulable states ’ incidence based on thromboelastography study and its association with thrombotic events in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fifty-two COVID-19 patients who had thromboelastography study were retrospectively included. All patients received pharmacologic thrombopro phy...
ConclusionCOVID ‐19 infection seems to be not only a pulmonary but also a vascular (arterial and venous) disease. Further study are necessary to described mid and long‐term outcomes in COVID‐19 vascular patients population.
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2020Source: Journal of Critical CareAuthor(s): Yasser Sakr, Manuela Giovini, Marc Leone, Giacinto Pizzilli, Andreas Kortgen, Michael Bauer, Tommaso Tonetti, Gary Duclos, Laurent Zieleskiewicz, Samuel Buschbeck, V. Marco Ranieri, Elio Antonucci
This report describes a patient with COVID-19 requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) for hypoxic respiratory failure, who developed hemorrhagic infarction of the right lower lobe. During emergency exploration, the patient was found to have a right inferior vein thrombosis and marked lobar hemorrhage mandating lobectomy. PMID: 32987023 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: Mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients present with an imbalance between markedly increased factor V/VIII activity and overwhelmed protein C/S pathway. Plasma D-dimer may be a useful biomarker at the bedside for suspicion of VTE. PMID: 32965009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, critically ill patients with ARDS related to COVID-19 may have an increased risk of VTE that could be a leading cause of mortality. These patients require a high index of clinical suspicion and an accurate diagnostic approach, in order to immediately start an appropriate anticoagulant treatment. PMID: 32965007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Microvascular and macrovascular thrombotic events are among the hallmarks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, the exuberant immune response is considered an important driver of pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. The optimal management strategy to prevent thrombosis in critically-ill patients with COVID-19 remains unknown.
This article reviews what is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection on different parts of the respiratory system, clues to understanding the underlying biology of respiratory disease, and highlights current and future translation and clinical research questions. PMID: 32960072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]