Heal the heart through gut (hormone) ghrelin: a potential player to combat heart failure

AbstractGhrelin, a small peptide hormone (28 aa), secreted mainly by X/A-like cells of gastric mucosa, is also locally produced in cardiomyocytes. Being an orexigenic factor (appetite stimulant), it promotes release of growth hormone (GH) and exerts diverse physiological functions, viz. regulation of energy balance, glucose, and/or fat metabolism for body weight maintenance. Interestingly, administration of exogenous ghrelin significantly improves cardiac functions in CVD patients as well as experimental animal models of heart failure. Ghrelin ameliorates pathophysiological condition of the heart in myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, cachexia, and ischemia reperfusion injury. This peptide also exerts significant impact at the level of vasculature leading to lowering high blood pressure and reversal of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism of actions elucidating the healing effects of ghrelin on the cardiovascular system is still a matter of conjecture. Some experimental data indicate its beneficial effects via complex cellular cross talks between autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular cells, some other suggest more direct receptor –mediated molecular actions via autophagy or ionotropic regulation and interfering with apoptotic and inflammatory pathways of cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Here, in this review, we summarise available recent data to encourage more research to find the missing lin...
Source: Heart Failure Reviews - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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AbstractVitamin C (Vit C) is an ideal antioxidant as it is easily available, water soluble, very potent, least toxic, regenerates other antioxidants particularly Vit E, and acts as a cofactor for different enzymes. It has received much attention due to its ability in limiting reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and nitrosative stress, as well as it helps to maintain some of the normal metabolic functions of the cell. However, over 140 clinical trials using Vit C in different pathological conditions such as myocardial infarction, gastritis, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, and cancer have yielded inconsistent results....
Source: Heart Failure Reviews - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Abstract Chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the development of several diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Adequate strategies to target inflammation in cardiovascular disease are in their infancy and remain an avenue of great interest. The purinergic receptor P2X7 is a ubiquitously expressed receptor that predominately mediates inflammation and cellular death. P2X7 is a ligand-gated cation channel that is activated in response to high concentrations of extracellular ATP, triggering the assembly and activation of the NLRP3 (nuclear oligomerization domain like receptor family pyrin domain contain...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research
Abstract The gut microbiome and intestinal dysfunction have emerged as potential contributors to the development of CVD. Alterations in gut microbiome are well documented in hypertension, atherosclerosis and heart failure and have been investigated as a therapeutic target. However, a perhaps underappreciated but related role for intestinal barrier function has become evident. Increased intestinal permeability is observed in patients and mouse models of CVD. This increased intestinal permeability can enhance systemic inflammation, alter gut immune function and has been demonstrated as predictive of adverse cardiova...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Source Type: research
This study is the first to provide a direct link between this inflammation and plaque development - by way of IFITM3. Scientists know that the production of IFITM3 starts in response to activation of the immune system by invading viruses and bacteria. These observations, combined with the new findings that IFITM3 directly contributes to plaque formation, suggest that viral and bacterial infections could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease development. Indeed, researchers found that the level of IFITM3 in human brain samples correlated with levels of certain viral infections as well as with gamma-secretase activ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: We found there is probably little to no difference in total mortality and cardiovascular mortality between people with hypertension and cardiovascular disease treated to a lower compared to a standard blood pressure target. There may also be little to no difference in serious adverse events or total cardiovascular events. This suggests that no net health benefit is derived from a lower systolic blood pressure target. We found very limited evidence on withdrawals due to adverse effects, which led to high uncertainty. At present, evidence is insufficient to justify lower blood pressure targets (135/85 mmHg or le...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
The raised blood pressure of hypertension causes harm throughout the body, raising mortality risk and accelerating the onset and progression of numerous forms of ultimately fatal age-related disease. It accelerates atherosclerosis, and raises the risk of a fatal rupture of blood vessels weakened by atherosclerotic lesions. It causes pressure damage to delicate tissues throughout the body. It leads to detrimental remodeling of heart tissue and the onset of heart failure. Thus forcing a reduction in blood pressure is quite beneficial in later life, even when it is achieved - as is presently the case - by overriding regulator...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Hypertension is a worldwide known cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, renal complications and heart failure. Although the mechanisms of hypertension remain largely unknown, a recent new concept is that aortic stiffening is a cause of hypertension in middle-aged and older individuals, which highlighted the importance of aortic stiffening in the development of age-related hypertension. Understanding the pathogenesis of aortic stiffness therefore became one of the important approaches to preventing and controlling hy...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - Category: Cardiology Tags: REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe review aims to describe the differences between men and women in those factors that can influence a worse prognosis in women after an acute cardiovascular event.Recent FindingsWomen adequately treated with current evidence-based medications for acute myocardial infarction and for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia, still have an extra risk of death compared with men. Additional factors that increase the risk of poor prognosis for the index event have been identified.SummaryThe residual risk can be due to factors affecting the prog...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
We present 1517 patients; 429 treated with paclitaxel DCB and 1088 treated with DES. On univariate analysis, age, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, prior myocardial infarction, heart failure, smoking, atrial fibrillation, decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) [and renal failure (eGFR  
Source: Clinical Research in Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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