Application of Radiomics for the Prediction of Radiation-Induced Toxicity in the IMRT Era: Current State-of-the-Art

Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models that were formulated in the Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) are one of the pillars in support of everyday’s clinical radiation oncology. Because of steady therapeutic refinements and the availability of cutting-edge technical solutions, the ceiling of organs-at-risk-sparing has been reached for photon-based intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The possibility to capture heterogeneity of patients and tissues in the prediction of toxicity is still an unmet need in modern radiation therapy. Potentially, a major step towards a wider therapeutic index could be obtained from refined assessment of radiation-induced morbidity at an individual level. The rising integration of quantitative imaging and machine learning applications into radiation oncology workflow offers an unprecedented opportunity to further explore the biologic interplay underlying the normal tissue response to radiation. Based on these premises, in this review we focused on the current-state-of-the-art on the use of radiomics for the prediction of toxicity in the field of head and neck, lung, breast and prostate radiotherapy.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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ConclusionWe trained and cross-validated an  RID predictive model with high discriminative ability at both 6 and 12 months after RT. We expect to improve the predictive power of this model by enlarging the number of training datasets.
Source: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsPlatinum ‐based chemotherapy followed by lung‐sparing surgery (P/D) and IMRT is a feasible and safe treatment modality that yields acceptable locoregional control in patients with locally advanced MPM; however, these results should be corroborated in larger studies.
Source: Thoracic Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women aged 15 to 44 years worldwide [1,2]. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become the preferred radiotherapy method for locally advanced cervical cancer treatment [3]. Accurate delineation of the clinical target volume (CTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) is one of the essential steps for successful IMRT delivery. Such delineation is conventionally performed by radiotherapy oncologists through laborious manual delineation. The delineation is time-consuming [4] and heavily relies on the radiotherapy oncologists ’ experience.
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Abstract The quality assurance (QA) of the output constancy of linear accelerators (linacs) is one of the most basic items for radiation therapy. The necessity and demand of the dosimetric audit is on the rise. We aimed at establishing an on-site dosimetric audit program with a plastic phantom in order to enrich the availability of dosimetric audit in Japan. By this, we developed and evaluated an on-site audit program in multiple institutions in 120 cases for photon and electron standard dosimetry and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) condition. For photon standard dosimetry, we evaluated the accuracies...
Source: Igaku Butsuri: Japanese Journal of Medical Physics - Category: Physics Authors: Tags: Igaku Butsuri Source Type: research
PMID: 32999249 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Igaku Butsuri: Japanese Journal of Medical Physics - Category: Physics Authors: Tags: Igaku Butsuri Source Type: research
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in North American males and the second leading cause of cancer death. External beam radiation therapy plays an important role in the clinical management of prostate cancer of various stages. Currently, image-guided target localization for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer has become a routine procedure, and plays an essential role in dose escalation and hypo-fractionation clinical trials, especially for those that employ stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) techniques.
Source: Medical Dosimetry - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Breast radiotherapy is associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease, particularly for left-sided irradiation due to direct anatomical proximity between the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) and the target volumes [1 –4]. First generation radiotherapy techniques, which relied on wide treatment fields, were associated with a substantial cardiac mortality increase. Fortunately, breast irradiation has benefited from recent technological progresses allowing significant cardiac sparing, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) [5], proton therapy [6] or deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH)[7].
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Conditions:   Cervical Carcinoma;   Endometrial Carcinoma;   Endometriosis;   Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Interventions:   Other: Quality-of-Life Assessment;   Other: Questionnaire Administration;   Radiation: Radiation Therapy Sponsors:   Mayo Clinic;   National Cancer Institute (NCI) Not yet recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Authors: Nakada R, Abou Al-Ola OM, Yoshinaga T Abstract We give a novel approach for obtaining an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization solution based on the idea of continuous dynamical methods. The proposed method, which is an iterative algorithm derived from the discretization of a continuous-time dynamical system, can handle not only dose-volume but also mean-dose constraints directly in IMRT treatment planning. A theoretical proof for the convergence to an equilibrium corresponding to the desired IMRT planning is given by using the Lyapunov stability theorem. By introducing the concept of &...
Source: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine - Category: Statistics Tags: Comput Math Methods Med Source Type: research
Conclusions: Radiation therapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C chemotherapy is reasonably well-tolerated as curative treatment for HIV+ patients with SCAC, and no significant difference in outcomes was noted relative to HIV− patients.
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research
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