The Impact of Adipose Tissue –Derived miRNAs in Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Cancer

Obesity is a multifactorial and complex condition that is characterized by abnormal and excessive white adipose tissue accumulation, which can lead to the development of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular diseases, and several types of cancer. Obesity is characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation and associated with alterations in immunity, displaying a chronic low-grade inflammation profile. Adipose tissue is a dynamic and complex endocrine organ composed not only by adipocytes, but several immunological cells, which can secrete hormones, cytokines and many other factors capable of regulating metabolic homeostasis and several critical biological pathways. Remarkably, adipose tissue is a major source of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), recently described as a novel form of adipokines. Several adipose tissue–derived miRNAs are deeply associated with adipocytes differentiation and have been identified with an essential role in obesity-associated inflammation, insulin resistance, and tumor microenvironment. During obesity, adipose tissue can completely change the profile of the secreted miRNAs, influencing circulating miRNAs and impacting the development of different pathological conditions, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. In this review, we discuss how miRNAs can act as epigenetic regulators affecting adipogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism, browning of the wh...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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This study was the first to demonstrate a causal relationship between glial senescence and neurodegeneration. In this study, accumulations of senescent astrocytes and microglia were found in tau-associated neurodegenerative disease model mice. Elimination of these senescent cells via a genetic approach can reduce tau deposition and prevent the degeneration of cortical and hippocampal neurons. Most recently, it was shown that clearance of senescent oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in AD model mice with senolytic agents could lessen the Aβ plaque load, reduce neuroinflammation, and ameliorate cognitive deficits. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental HepatologyAuthor(s): Raseen Tariq, Page Axley, Ashwani K. SingalNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with a strong association with metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is truly a systemic disease and is associated with a plethora of extra-hepatic manifestations or comorbidities. These are either related to secondary effects of associated obesity or from pathophysiological effects of insulin resistance in NAFLD. Three most common causes of increased morbidity and mortality associa...
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Abstract Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease, is characterized by accumulation of fat (>5% of the liver tissue), in the absence of alcohol abuse or other chronic liver diseases. Its prevalence is increasing because of obesity, metabolic syndrome or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD can cause liver inflammation and progress to Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis or Hepatocellular Cancer (HCC). Nevertheless, Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in NAFLD/NASH patients. Current guidelines suggest the use of p...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental HepatologyAuthor(s): Raseen Tariq, Page Axley, Ashwani SingalAbstractNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is now the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with a strong association with metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is truly a systemic disease and is associated with a plethora of extra-hepatic manifestations or comorbidities. These are either related to secondary effects of associated obesity or from pathophysiological effects of insulin resistance in NAFLD. Three most common causes of increased morbidity and mortality a...
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Filomena Corbo1†, Giacomina Brunetti2*†, Pasquale Crupi3, Sara Bortolotti4, Giuseppina Storlino4, Laura Piacente5, Alessia Carocci1, Alessia Catalano1, Gualtiero Milani1, Graziana Colaianni4, Silvia Colucci2, Maria Grano4, Carlo Franchini1, Maria Lisa Clodoveo6, Gabriele D'Amato7 and Maria Felicia Faienza5 1Department of Pharmacy-Drug science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy 2Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Basic and Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy 3CREA-VE, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics&ndas...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Bariatric surgery appears to be capable of partially reversing the obesity-related epigenome. The identification of potential epigenetic biomarkers predictive for the success of bariatric surgery may open new doors to personalized therapy for severe obesity. Introduction Obesity is currently a huge healthcare problem, worldwide, and is a risk factor for several diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease and cancer (1). As the prevalence of obesity reaches pandemic proportions, this metabolic disease is estimated to become the biggest cause of mortality in the near future (2). In fact,...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In this study, we explore shared epigenetic mechanisms of the association between mtDNA content and insulin levels, supporting the developmental origins of this link. First, the association between cord blood insulin and mtDNA content in 882 newborns of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort was assessed. Cord blood mtDNA content was established via qPCR, while cord blood levels of insulin were determined using electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Then the cord blood DNA methylome and transcriptome were determined in 179 newborns, using the human 450K methylation Illumina and Agilent Whole Human Genome 8 × 60 K microarrays, r...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a pathogenetically complex and clinically heterogeneous disease resulting from a diverse interaction of environmental components and a genetic background. It is a systemic condition featuring metabolic, cardiovascular, and (both hepatic and extrahepatic) cancer risk [1,2]. NAFLD is not only a sequelae of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome, but itself is a determinant for the future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome which has potentially relevant clinical implications for diagnosing, preventing, and treating these conditions [3,4].
Source: Digestive and Liver Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Abstract After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as "fatty infiltration" or "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease" (NAFPD). The term "fatty replacement" describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
It has been called the skinny carb, resistant fiber, and resistant starch. Whatever you call it, research shows it can help you lose belly fat, feel full, lower your blood sugar, and increase your helpful bacteria. Why Does it Help? The more your blood sugar goes up and down, the more you gain weight and the more you are at risk for the complications of diabetes. Resistant starch helps stabilize your blood sugar more than any other known compound. In fact, it was first discovered in 1984 as an effective treatment for a fatal genetic disorder that causes unstable blood sugar, called glycogen storage disease. People with th...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Cardiology | Cardiovascular | Diabetes | Diabetes Mellitus | Diabetes Type 2 | Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Endocrinology | Fatty Liver Disease (FLD) | Heart | Hormones | Insulin | Liver | Liver Disease | Metabolic Syndrome | Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases (NAFLD) | Obesity | Urology & Nephrology