Coronavirus-19 (SARS-CoV-2) induces acute severe lung inflammation via IL-1 causing cytokine storm in COVID-19: a promising inhibitory strategy.

Coronavirus-19 (SARS-CoV-2) induces acute severe lung inflammation via IL-1 causing cytokine storm in COVID-19: a promising inhibitory strategy. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2020 Oct 05;34(6): Authors: Conti P, Caraffa A, Gallenga CE, Ross R, Kritas SK, Frydas I, Younes A, Ronconi G Abstract SARS-Cov-2 infection causes local and systemic inflammation mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 eicosanoid products with metabolic dysfunction and tissue damage that can lead to patient death. These effects are primarily induced by IL-1 cytokines, which are involved in the elevation of hepatic acute phase proteins and fever. IL-1 has a broad spectrum of biological activities and participates in both innate and acquired immunity. In infections, IL-1 induces gene expression and synthesis of several cytokines/chemokines in both macrophages and mast cells (MCs). The activation of MCs triggers the secretion of mediators stored in the granules, and the de novo synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In microorganism infections, the release of IL-1 macrophage acts on adhesion molecules and endothelial cells leading to hypotension and septic shock syndrome. IL-1 activated by SARS-CoV-2 stimulates the secretion of TNF, IL-6 and other cytokines, a pro-inflammatory complex that can lead to cytokine storm and be deleterious in both lung and systemically. In SARS-CoV-2 septic shock, severe metabolic cellular abnormalities occur which can lead to death. Here, we repor...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research

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The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has had a global impact not seen for an infectious disease for over a century. This acute pandemic has spread from the East and has been overlaid onto a slow pandemic of metabolic diseases of obesity and diabetes consequent from the increasing adoption of a Western-lifestyle characterized by excess calorie consumption with limited physical activity. It has become clear that these conditions predispose individuals to a more severe COVID-19 with increased morbidity and mortality. There are many features of diabetes and obesity that may accentuate the clinical r...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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Source: CEN Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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Source: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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Authors: Conti P, Caraffa A, Gallenga CE, Ross R, Kritas SK, Frydas I, Younes A, Di Emidio P, Ronconi G, Toniato E Abstract IL-1 induces a significant number of metabolic and hematological changes. In experimental animals, IL-1 treatments cause hypotension due to rapid reduction of systemic blood pressure, reduced vascular resistance, increased heart rate and leukocyte aggregations. IL-1 causes endothelial dysfunction, the triggering factor of which may be of a different nature including pathogen infection. This dysfunction, which includes macrophage intervention and increased protein permeability, can be mediated ...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
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