Cardiologists need to keep an open mind and be capable of listening to, and learning from, the Emergency Physician

Conclusion: This represents the largest study of patients with VPR and angiographically-proven ACO. The MSC were highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of ACO in patients presenting to the ED with VPR and symptoms of acute coronary syndrome.===================================MY Comment by KEN GRAUER, MD (10/4/2020):===================================Today ’s case provides a superb example of how acute OMI can sometimes be definitively recognized even in the presence ofpacing. Unfortunately, this was not recognized by the cardiology team despite a typical ischemic-sounding history + clear evidence on ECG — and stat Echo consistent with ECG findings.As we ’ve shown in numerous cases on Dr. Smith ’s ECG Blog — Modified Smith-Sgarbossa Criteria can be used to objectively identify acute OMI in both LBBB and paced tracings. Dr. Smith emphasizes how the initial ECG in today ’s case is positive for these criteria in no less than 6/12 leads.I would add that from a qualitative standpoint — the initial ECG in today ’s case shows clear ECG abnormalities suggestive of acute OMI in no less than 10/12 leads!For clarity — I’ve put both of the ECGs from today’s case together in Figure-1.Please TAKE another&n...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs

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This case was sent by an excellent medic:A 50-something yo male started to chop wood when he experienced a short syncopal episode followed by 8/10 chest pain.  Ground EMS arrived, administered ASA and sublingual nitro to which he passed out again.Flight crew was called to transport for signs of shock/syncopal episodes, not ACS.Ground crew had recorded this prehospital ECG:Sinus rhythm with one PVC (first complex)And anything else?These are hyperacute T-waves diagnostic of LAD occlusion.  They begin at V3, and there is no inferior ST depression, so this is probably a mid-LAD occlusion.  The hyperacute T-waves...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
A 20-something woman presented with 30 minutes of sudden onset chest pressure that started while in the bathroom. She had no relief from nitro x1. ASA 325 given by EMS.Here is her prehospital ECG:What do you think?Here are limb leads magnified:Precordial leads magnified:Notice the hyperacute T-waves in V4She arrived in the ED with her pain diminishing.Here is her ED ECG:What do you think?The first ECG is diagnostic of inferior OMI, with probable lateral involvement as well (V4-V6).In the 2nd (ED) ECG, the inferior findings are gone.  The lateral ST segments remain elevated.  The T-waves appear hyperacute. &n...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
This patient was working on his truck in a garage without ventilation and the vehicle was running. He felt dizzy and lost consciousness. The next thing he remembers is waking up in the ambulance. He was last seen normal at 09:00 AM and was found down at 10:30 AM. He denied chest pain, abdominal pain, SOB or any other symptoms, though he did endorse chest pressure when asked specifically.He underwent a routine ECG prior to hyperbaric therapy for CO poisoning:Obvious Massive STEMI, Proximal LAD OcclusionHis CO level returned at 34%.Further h/o revealed that he had had a proximal LAD stent placed for a Non-Occlusion MI more t...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
Written by Pendell Meyers, submitted by Siva Vittozzi-WongA man in his 30s with history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes presented with chest pain which started 12 hours prior to presentation. The pain was described as pressure, constant for 12 hours, radiating to the jaw, with left arm numbness. Initial vitals were significant for bradycardia at 45 beats per minute.Here is his presenting ECG with active pain:What do you think?Here was the prior EKG on file:The emergency medicine resident (who has received lectures from me on hyperacute T-waves, suble OMI, etc) documented the following interpretation:" In...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
This is written by Brooks Walsh.https://twitter.com/BrooksWalshA 30 year-old woman was brought to the ED with chest pain.It had started just after nursing her newborn, about an hour prior, and she described it as a severe non-pleuritic “pressure” radiating to the back.She had given birth a week ago, and she had similar chest pain during her labor. She attributed the chest pain to anxiety and stress, saying " I'm just an anxious person. "A CXR and a CTA for PE were normal.The ECGsAn initial ECG was obtained as the pain was rapidly resolving:Minimal upsloping ST Elevation in III, with a steeply biphasic...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
In this study, approximately 10% of Transient STEMI had no culprit found:Early or late intervention in patients with transient ST ‐segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: Subgroup analysis of the ELISA‐3 trialOne must use all available data, including the ECG, to determine what happened.Final Diagnosis?If the troponin remained under the 99% reference, then it would be unstable angina.  If it rose above that level before falling, it would be acute myocardial injury due to ischemia, which is, by definition, acute MI.  If that is a result of plaque rupture, then it is a type I MI.  The clinical presentat...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
Post by Smith and MeyersSam Ghali (https://twitter.com/EM_RESUS) just asked me (Smith):" Steve, do left main coronary artery *occlusions* (actual ones with transmural ischemia) have ST Depression or ST Elevation in aVR? "Smith and Meyers answer:First, LM occlusion is uncommon in the ED because most of these die before they can get a 12-lead recorded.But if they do present:The very common presentation of diffuse STD with reciprocal STE in aVR is NOT left main occlusion, though it might be due to subtotal LM ACS, but is much more often due to non-ACS conditions, especially demand ischemia. ...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
I awoke in the morning and discovered a text with this ECG that was sent 6 hours prior by a former resident:" 60 year old with classic chest pain.  The cath lab is occupied for the next 90 minutes.  Cards says " not a STEMI " .  Thinking of giving lytics. "What do you think?What do you do?I texted back: " Sorry for delay!  Was sleeping.  This is OMI!!  Did you give lytics?  Proximal LAD.  Great catch! "There is 0.5 mm of ST Elevation in V3-V6.  The T-wave in V4 is far too large for the QRS.  The LAD occlusion formula would be very high due to t...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
Case submitted by Dr. James AlvaA middle aged male called EMS for chest pain. EMS arrived and confirmed that the patient was complaining of chest pain and shortness of breath.They recorded this prehospital ECG:What do you think?Normal QRS complex rhythm with hyperacute T-waves in V2-V6, I and aVL. Slight STE in V2 only, with significant STD and thus de-Winter pattern in V4-V6. Leads II and III show reciprocal depression of the ST segment (II) and T-wave (III). This is diagnostic of acute myocardial infarction of the anterolateral walls, with the most likely etiology being Occlusion of the LAD. In other words, this ECG show...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
This study sought to investigate what could be learned from how these men have fared. The men were born in 1925-1928 and similar health-related data from questionnaires, physical examination, and blood samples are available for all surveys. Survival curves over various variable strata were applied to evaluate the impact of individual risk factors and combinations of risk factors on all-cause deaths. At the end of 2018, 118 (16.0%) of the men had reached 90 years of age. Smoking in 1974 was the strongest single risk factor associated with survival, with observed percentages of men reaching 90 years being 26.3, 25.7, ...
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