Population diversity and virulence characteristics of Cryptococcus neoformans/C . gattii species complexes isolated during the pre-HIV-pandemic era
by Sujiraphong Pharkjaksu, Kyung J. Kwon-Chung, John E. Bennett, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj Cryptococcosis has become a major global health problem since the advent of the HIV pandemic in 1980s. Although its molecular epidemiology is well-defined, using isolates recovered since then, no pre-HIV-pandemic era epidemiological data exist. We conducted a molecular epidemiological study using 228 isolates of theC.neoformans/C.gattii species complexes isolated before 1975. Genotypes were determined byURA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and multi-locus sequence typing. Population genetics were defined by nucleotide diversity measurements, neutrality tests, and recombination analysis. Growth at 37 °C, melanin synthesis, capsule production, and urease activity as virulence factors were quantified. The pre-HIV-pandemic isolates consisted of 186 (81.5%) clinical, 35 (15.4%) environmental, and 7 (3.1%) veterinary isolates. Of those, 204 (89.5%) belonged toC.neoformans VNI (64.0%), VNII (14.9%) and VNIV (10.5%) while 24 (10.5%) belonged toC.gattii VGIII (7.5%), VGI (2.6%) and VGII (0.5%). Among the 47 sequence types (STs) identified, one of VNII and 8 of VNIV were novel. ST5/VNI (23.0%) inC.neoformans and ST75/VGIII (25.0%) inC.gattii were the most common STs in both species complexes. AmongC.neoformans, VNIV had the highest genetic diversity (Hd = 0.926) and the minimum recombination events (Rm = 10), and clinical isolates had less genetic diversity (Hd = 0.866) than ...
CONCLUSIONS: This single practice study showed total patient contact was similar over both sample periods, but most contact in 2020 was virtual. Further longitudinal multi-practice studies to confirm these findings and describe future consultation patterns are needed to inform general practice service delivery post-COVID-19. PMID: 33032304 [PubMed - in process]
Curious what people think with pandemic and lack of away rotations.
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 170Author(s): Brian W. Haas, Fumiko Hoeft, Kazufumi Omura
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Academic PediatricsAuthor(s): Bonnie Crume
Authors: Lam PT PMID: 33034296 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
We moved into together on March 14. Overnight, we went from being two individuals with whole, separate lives to being a single, quarantined entity.
Los Alamitos students in Orange County were among the first in the state to return to campus. Just across the county line, distance learning remains the norm for Long Beach students, frustrating some families.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that transaminitis on admission was associated with severe clinical outcomes such as admission to the intensive care unit, need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality. PMID: 33033568 [PubMed]
In this study, we found 2 cases of NHL. The study also revealed that caseation necrosis and AFB positivity along with opportunistic infections increases with decreased CD4+ count.