Kappa-opioid receptor-dependent changes in dopamine and anxiety-like or approach-avoidance behavior occur differentially across the nucleus accumbens shell rostro-caudal axis.

In this study, we examined in rats the relationship between the KOR and dopamine systems in both the rostral and caudal NAc shell using ex vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry and the impact of KOR activation on affective behavior using exploration-based tasks. We report here that activation of KORs in the caudal NAc shell significantly inhibits dopamine release, stimulates rearing behavior in a novel environment, increases anxiety-like or avoidance behavior, and reduces locomotor activity. In contrast, activation of KORs in the rostral NAc shell inhibits dopamine release to a lesser extent and instead reduces anxiety-like behavior or increases approach behavior. Taken together, these results indicate that there is heterogeneity across the rostro-caudal axis of the NAc shell in the effects of KOR stimulation on affective behaviors, and they suggest that this might be due to differences in KOR control over dopamine release. PMID: 33011200 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research

Related Links:

In today’s show, Gabe talks with Robert Kolker, author of the New York Times bestselling — and Oprah’s book club pick — book Hidden Valley Road. This non-fiction biography is the true story of a mid-century American family besieged by schizophrenia. Of their 12 children, 6 struggled with the severe mental disorder.  Join us for the incredible story of the family who became science’s greatest hope in the quest to understand schizophrenia. SUBSCRIBE &REVIEW   Guest information for ‘Robert Kolker- Large Family Schizophrenia’ Podcast Episode Robert Kolker is the...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Family General Interview Schizophrenia The Psych Central Show Source Type: blogs
Can music really affect your well-being, learning, cognitive function, quality of life, and even happiness? A recent survey on music and brain health conducted by AARP revealed some interesting findings about the impact of music on cognitive and emotional well-being: Music listeners had higher scores for mental well-being and slightly reduced levels of anxiety and depression compared to people overall. Of survey respondents who currently go to musical performances, 69% rated their brain health as “excellent” or “very good,” compared to 58% for those who went in the past and 52% for those who never ...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Brain and cognitive health Healthy Aging Memory Mental Health Neurological conditions Source Type: blogs
In this study, we aim to see how gene × brain × environment models give a more integrative understanding of brain modifications that contribute to predicting psychopathology related to childhood adversity. A large nonclinical sample of young adults completed Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), behavioral scores, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and genotyping. We utilized graph‐based conne ctivity analysis in morphometric similarity mapping and resting‐state functional MRI to investigate brain alterations. Relationships among COMT genotypes, CTQ score, imaging phenoty...
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2020; 24: 441-450 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713607Identifying the source of a person's pain is a significant clinical challenge because the physical sensation of pain is believed to be subjective and difficult to quantify. The experience of pain is not only modulated by the individual's threshold to painful stimuli but also a product of the person's affective contributions, such as fear, anxiety, and previous experiences. Perhaps then to quantify pain is to examine the degree of nociception and pro-nociceptive inflammation, that is, the extent of cellular, chemical, and molecular changes that occur in...
Source: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Children who were exposed to any amount of alcohol in the womb are more likely to be impulsive and diagnosed with separation anxiety and oppositional defiant disorder compared with children who were not exposed to alcohol in the womb, reports astudy inAJP in Advance.“To our knowledge, this is the largest examination of prenatal alcohol exposure and psychological, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preadolescence,” wrote Briana Lees, B.Psych., of the University of Sydney, Australia, and colleagues. The authors noted their study reaffirmed the man y risks of heavy drinking during pregnancy, but &ldquo...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: ABCD study ajp in advance alcohol impulsivity oppositional defiant disorder pregnancy prenatal exposure separation anxiety Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This suggests AUD with anxiety symptomology may have a unique neurobiological underpinning, and treatment and intervention should be tailored to individual constellations of symptoms. PMID: 32981080 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
Conclusion: Awareness of this uncommon manifestation would help differential diagnosis of periostitis and could help decrease the patient's anxiety. It should also be noted that periosteal reactions by benign entities could cause aggressive-looking periosteal reactions in post-operative regions.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The experience of physical or sexual abuse may leave detectable structural alterations in key regions of the amygdala, potentially mediating the risk of psychopathology in trauma-exposed youth. PMID: 32940197 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
ConclusionsSupervised group exercise did not improve psychological well ‐being for women with or at high risk of depression at 29‐34 weeks of gestation. Eight weeks postpartum the intervention group reported significantly higher psychological well‐being than the control group. Based on our results, supervised exercise in groups is a safe complementary course of t reatment alongside the existing antenatal care.
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that dental care professionals may gain comprehensive information about their patients' DF by means of four component-based diagnostic interviews. This helps them to better identify and encounter patients in need of fear-sensitive dental care. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02919241. PMID: 32924725 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Acta Odontol Scand Source Type: research
More News: Anxiety | Brain | Drugs & Pharmacology | Environmental Health | Neurology | PET Scan | Study