More precise donor–recipient matching: the role of eplet matching

Purpose of review A precise understanding of the alloimmune risk faced by individual recipients at the time of transplant is an unmet need in transplantation. Although conventional HLA donor–recipient mismatch is too imprecise to fulfil this need, HLA molecular mismatch increases the precision in alloimmune risk assessment by quantifying the difference between donors and recipients at the molecular level. Recent findings Within each conventional HLA mismatch the number, type, and position of mismatched amino acids create a wide range of HLA molecular mismatches between recipients and donors. Multiple different solid organ transplant groups from across the world have correlated HLA molecular mismatch with transplant outcomes including de novo donor-specific antibody development, antibody-mediated rejection, T-cell-mediated rejection, and allograft survival. Summary All alloimmunity is driven by differences between donors and recipients at the molecular level. HLA molecular mismatch may represent an advancement compared to traditional HLA antigen mismatch as a fast, reproducible, cost-effective way to improve alloimmune risk assessment at the time of transplantation to move the field towards precision medicine.
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: DIALYSIS AND TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by David J. Cohen Source Type: research

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Purpose of review The current understanding of the incidence, predisposing factors, pathophysiology and effective treatment of recurrent glomerulonephritis (RGN) in renal transplants remains at best patchy and at worst, completely lacking. Current reports have been limited by inconsistencies in study design, sample populations and lengths of follow-up. Making sense of the available evidence will provide the tools to support transplant nephrologists in their management of allograft donors and recipients. Recent findings With better survival of renal allografts, RGN has become a dominant factor influencing allograft sur...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: DIALYSIS AND TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by David J. Cohen Source Type: research
Purpose of review To summarize the current state of evidence regarding the role of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genotyping in evaluating donors for kidney transplantation. Recent findings African ancestry is associated with an increased risk of kidney failure following living donation. Moreover, kidney transplants from African ancestry deceased donors have an increased risk of graft failure. Preliminary evidence suggests that APOL1 genotype may mediate at least a portion of this racial variation, with high-risk APOL1 genotypes defined by presence of two renal risk variants (RRVs). A pilot study 136 African ancestry livin...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: DIALYSIS AND TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by David J. Cohen Source Type: research
Purpose of review The clinical significance and treatment of borderline changes are controversial. The lowest detectable margin for rejection on histology is unclear. We review recent evidence about borderline changes and related biomarkers. Recent findings Borderline change (Banff ≥ t1i1) is associated with progressive fibrosis, a greater propensity to form de-novo DSA, and reduced graft survival. Isolated tubulitis appears to have similar kidney allograft outcomes with normal controls, but this finding should be validated in a larger, diverse population. When borderline change was treated, a higher chance of kidn...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: DIALYSIS AND TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by David J. Cohen Source Type: research
Conclusions. The mortality risk associated with PH among patients with advanced chronic kidney disease appears to differ by etiology. Patients with PH in the absence of eLAP are at high risk of death and in need of focused attention. Future research efforts should investigate potential strategies to improve outcomes for these patients.
Source: Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Clinical Science—General Source Type: research
Purpose of review Despite improvement in short-term renal allograft survival in recent years, renal transplant recipients (RTR) have poorer long-term allograft outcomes. Allograft function slowly declines with periods of stable function similar to natural progression of chronic kidney disease in nontransplant population. Nearly all RTR transitions to failing renal allograft (FRG) period and require transition to dialysis. Conservative chronic kidney disease management before transition to end-stage renal disease is an increasingly important topic; however, there is limited data in RTR regarding how to delay dialysis init...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NOVEL THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES IN NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION: Edited by Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh and Ekamol Tantisattamo Source Type: research
Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment of choice for end stage kidney disease , offering the highest survival benefit amongst all the different renal replacement therapies1. Long term renal allograft and patient survival have shown substantial improvements over time: however, death with a functioning allograft remains the leading cause of late allograft loss with cardiovascular disease (CVD) related deaths representing a major cause of mortality2. While recipients of kidney transplants have lower risk for CVD when compared to the 10-20 fold increased risk in patients with dialysis, their risk of CVD is substantially ...
Source: Kidney International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Policy Forum Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: In chronic kidney disease (CKD), intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) control reduces mortality at a cost of greater acute kidney injury (AKI) risk. Kidney transplantation involves implantation of denervated kidneys and immunosuppressive medications that increase AKI risk. The optimal blood pressure (BP) target in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) is uncertain. Prior observational studies from the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) trial demonstrate associations of lower SBP levels and reduced mortality risk, but the relationship of BP with kidney allog...
Source: American Journal of Hypertension - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Am J Hypertens Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ART1 antibodies on allograft function and hypertension in stable kidney transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-one kidney recipients from non- human leukocyte antigen antibodies-matched donors with stable allograft function were examined for estimated glomerular filtration rate (Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration formula) and ART1 antibodies (measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method). The result was considered positive if the anti-ART1 level was greater than 17 U/mL. RESULTS: The mean age of the participant was 51.1 ± 1...
Source: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Iran J Kidney Dis Source Type: research
Purpose of review The current article reviews the available literature on the incidence, complications, outcomes, and management of pregnancies in kidney transplant recipients. Recent findings Pregnancy can be a reasonable option for women with a kidney transplant. More than 4700 successful pregnancies have been reported after kidney transplantation. New data have emerged regarding the risk of allograft dysfunction following pregnancy. There is a lack of consensus on the optimal time for conception, immunosuppressive targets, the safety of allograft biopsy, and infection surveillance. Successful pregnancies have recen...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: DIALYSIS AND TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by J. Kevin Tucker and Anil Chandraker Source Type: research
Purpose of review With improving short-term kidney transplant outcomes, recurrent glomerular disease is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic allograft failure. Further understanding of the risks and pathogenesis of recurrent glomerular disease enable informed transplant decisions, along with the development of preventive and treatment strategies. Recent findings Multiple observational studies have highlighted differences in rates and outcomes for various recurrent glomerular diseases, although these rates have not markedly improved over the last decade. Emerging evidence supports use of ritux...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: DIALYSIS AND TRANSPLANTATION: Edited by J. Kevin Tucker and Anil Chandraker Source Type: research
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