An optimal typhoid conjugate vaccine coverage complemented with WASH is imperative for the control of antimicrobial resistance in Pakistan.

An optimal typhoid conjugate vaccine coverage complemented with WASH is imperative for the control of antimicrobial resistance in Pakistan. Vaccine. 2020 Sep 29;: Authors: Imran Khan M, Aijaz S, Syed FF, Kaljee L PMID: 33008669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

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Abstract Understanding patterns and trends of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella Typhi can guide empiric treatment recommendations and contribute to country decisions about typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) introduction. We systematically reviewed PubMed and Web of Science for articles reporting the proportion of Salmonella Typhi isolates resistant to individual antimicrobials worldwide from any time period. Isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR), and isolates that were MDR plus resistant to a fluoroquinolone and a t...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, with large outbreaks reported from Africa and Asia. Although the WHO recommends typhoid vaccination for control of confirmed outbreaks, there are limited data on the epidemiologic characteristics of outbreaks to inform vaccine use in outbreak settings. We conducted a literature review for typhoid outbreaks published since 1990. We found 47 publications describing 45,215 cases in outbreaks occurring in 25 countries from 1989 through 2018. Outbreak characteristics varied considerably by WHO region, with median outb...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-prev...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis report confirms 12 azithromycin-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains and one Paratyphi A strain. The molecular basis of this resistance is one mutation in the AcrB protein at position 717. This is the first report demonstrating the impact of this non-synonymous mutation in conferring macrolide resistance in a clinical setting. With increasing azithromycin use, strains with R717 mutations may spread and be acquired by XDR strains. An azithromycin-resistant XDR strain would shift enteric fever treatment from outpatient departments, where patients are currently treated with oral azithromycin, to inpatient departm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Typhoid fever, an infection with potentially life threatening complications, is responsible for 11 to 21 million illness episodes and 145,000 to 161,000 deaths each year globally. India is a high burden country and also faces the challenge of antimicrobial resistance, which further narrows treatment options. This review analyzes the need for typhoid vaccination in India, and appraises the evidence on efficacy, immunogenicity and cost-effectiveness of currently available typhoid vaccines. In 2018, WHO prequalified the first typhoid conjugate vaccine Vi-TT and recommended it for children aged 6-23 months, a...
Source: Indian Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Indian Pediatr Source Type: research
Abstract Background &objectives: The temporal trends in the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi in India have not been systematically reported. We aimed to systematically review the temporal AMR trends (phenotypic and molecular mechanisms) in bacterial isolates from patients with enteric fever over two decades in India. Methods: To identify trends in AMR in India, resistance patterns among 4611 individual S. Typhi isolates and 800 S. Paratyphi A isolates, reported from 1992 to 2017 in 40 publications, were analysed. Molecular resistance determinant...
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Enteric-fever is a major public-health problem in India. Emergence of multidrug-resistant, Nalidixic-acid resistant and extremely-drug resistant Salmonella mandates ongoing surveillance for targeted empirical therapy and containment of spread. Repeated epidemics call for water, sanitation, hygiene and vaccination strategies to sustain herd-immunity. PMID: 30664444 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Medica: Hradec Kralove - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) Source Type: research
ConclusionFrom these observations, it appears that AMR inS. Typhi will continue to emerge leading to treatment failure, changes in antimicrobial policy and further resistance developing inS. Typhi isolates and other Gram-negative bacteria in endemic regions. The deployment of typhoid conjugate vaccines to control the disease in endemic regions may be the best defence.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose of review Enteric fever remains a major global-health concern, estimated to be responsible for between 11.9 and 26.9 million cases annually. Long-term prevention of enteric fever will require improved access to safe drinking water combined with investment in sanitation and hygiene interventions. In the short-to-medium term, new control strategies for typhoid fever have arrived in the form of typhoid Vi-conjugate vaccines (TCVs), offering hope that disease control can be achieved in the near future. Recent findings The diagnosis of enteric fever is complicated by its nonspecific clinical presentation, coupled w...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by A Clinton White and Gagandeep Kang Source Type: research
This study describes enteric fever trends in Bangladesh along with these factors' progress between 1990 and 2014. Retrospective enteric fever data were collected from Dhaka Shishu (children) Hospital (DSH), Shishu Shasthya Foundation Hospital (SSFH), International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and Popular Diagnostic Center (PDC). Contextual factors data were gathered from relevant organizations and their websites and plotted against time to see trends. During 2001-2014, data for a total of 131,449 blood cultures were available at DSH, SSFH, and PDC. Of those, 7,100 (isolation rate 5.4%) yielded either ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
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