The possible role of endocrine dysfunction of adipose tissue in gestational diabetes mellitus.

The possible role of endocrine dysfunction of adipose tissue in gestational diabetes mellitus. Minerva Endocrinol. 2020 Sep;45(3):228-242 Authors: Šimják P, Anderlová K, Cinkajzlová A, Pařízek A, Kršek M, Haluzík M Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is diabetes that is first diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy in patients who did not have a history of diabetes before pregnancy. Consequences of GDM include increased risk of macrosomia and birth complications in the infant and an increased risk of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after pregnancy. There is also a longer-term risk of obesity, T2DM, and cardiovascular diseases in the child. GDM is the result of impaired glucose tolerance due to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction on a background of insulin resistance that physiologically increases during pregnancy. The strongest clinical predictors of GDM are overweight and obesity. The fact that women with GDM are more likely to be overweight or obese suggests that adipose tissue dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of GDM, similarly to T2DM. Adipose tissue is not only involved in energy storage but also functions as an active endocrine organ secreting adipokines (specific hormones and cytokines) with the ability to alter insulin sensitivity. Recent evidence points to a crucial role of numerous adipokines produced by fat in the development of GDM. The following t...
Source: Minerva Endocrinologica - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Minerva Endocrinol Source Type: research

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World Psychiatry. 2021 Oct;20(3):417-436. doi: 10.1002/wps.20894.ABSTRACTDecades of research have revealed numerous risk factors for mental disorders beyond genetics, but their consistency and magnitude remain uncer-tain. We conducted a "meta-umbrella" systematic synthesis of umbrella reviews, which are systematic reviews of meta-analyses of individual studies, by searching international databases from inception to January 1, 2021. We included umbrella reviews on non-purely genetic risk or protective factors for any ICD/DSM mental disorders, applying an established classification of the credibility of the evidenc...
Source: World Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
This study evaluated whether neonatal Met exposure prevented male reproductive dysfunction caused by being overweight during adulthood. Randomized Wistar rat pups received an intraperitoneal injection from postnatal days (PNDs) 1 to 12of saline (Sal; 0.9% NaCl/day in 2mL/kg) or Met (100 mg/kg/day in 2 mL/kg). From PNDs 60 to 90, the animals received a regular (R; 4.5% fat; Sal R and Met R groups) or a high-fat (HF; 35% fat; Sal HF and Met HF groups) diet. At PND 90, all animals were euthanized to evaluate their biometric and reproductive parameters. The Sal and Met groups with R showed similar body weights, however, the HF...
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Source Type: research
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance of variable severity with first onset or detection during pregnancy and usually resolves not long after delivery[1, 2]. GDM notably occur in the second or third trimester. The blood glucose levels of women with GDM slightly elevated, and a small proportion of them substantially increased[3]. GDM raised concern for greater risk of perinatal complications such as macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, caesarean section, and neonatal hypoglycaemia, and long term sequelae of developing type 2 diabetes in mothers and obesity in their offsprings[4-7].
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma chemerin is elevated in GDM patients. Genetic variation in chemerin gene associated with lower plasma levels of chemerin, HOMA-IR index and protects against the development of GDM in Chinese.PMID:34371096 | DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2021.145888
Source: Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractStudy questionGiven the common pathophysiology between type 2  DM (risk of which is increased by smoking) and GDM we sought to assess whether an association between smoking and GDM exists?Summary answerAfter controlling for confounding effects, women who smoke during pregnancy are at an increased risk of developing GDM.What is known alreadySmoking is well associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in multiple studies. It has remained unclear whether there is also an association between smoking and GDM as publications report conflicting results. In a meta-analysis of 1,364,468 pregnancies (22,811 smokers) ...
Source: Human Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusions As GDM is an increasingly common complication of pregnancy, it is of paramount importance that inconsistencies between national and international guidelines should encourage research to resolve the issues of controversy and allow uniform international protocols for the diagnosis and management of GDM, in order to safely guide clinical practice and subsequently improve perinatal and maternal outcomes. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives After participating in this activity, the learner should be better able to identify all available screening m...
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - Category: OBGYN Tags: CME ARTICLES Source Type: research
DiscussionThe Gestational Diabetes Prevention /Prevenci ón de la Diabetes Gestacional is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention delivered before pregnancy to prevent GDM recurrence. If found effective, the proposed lifestyle intervention could lay the groundwork for shifting current treatment practices towards the interconception period and provide evidence-based preconception counseling to optimize reproductive outcomes and prevent GDM and associated health risks.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.govNCT02763150. Registered on May 5, 2016
Source: Trials - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing problem among reproductive-aged women. Contemporary trends in obesity and delayed child-bearing are expected to result in an increasing number of pregnancies affected by type 2 DM. Women with known type 2 DM can greatly benefit from preconception care as improved periconception glycemic control and weight loss can decrease the neonatal and maternal risks associated with type 2 DM and pregnancy. Antenatal mainstays of management include frequent blood glucose monitoring, insulin therapy, optimization of coexisting medical conditions, and fetal surveillance. Careful attention to pos...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: Diabesity: Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity Source Type: research
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicates 6% to 8% of pregnancies and up to 50% of women with GDM progress to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) within 5 years postpartum. Clinicians have little guidance on which women are most at risk for DM progression or when evidence-based prevention strategies should be implemented in a woman’s lifecycle. To help address this gap, the authors review identifiable determinants of progression from GDM to DM across the perinatal period, considering prepregnancy, pregnancy, and postpartum periods. The authors categorize evidence by pathways of risk including genetic, metabolic, and ...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: Diabesity: Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity Source Type: research
AbstractGestational diabetes (GD) is the glucose intolerance that occurs  during pregnancy. Mothers who develop diabetes during gestation are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life, and the risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes are also increased as a function of maternal hyperglycemia. Infants who are exposed to fetal hyperg lycemia show an increased risk of becoming obese and developing T2DM later in life. Due to the need of new research on this field, and the difficulty of performing studies in human brain, studies using experimental models are necessary to suggest possi...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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