Spatial epidemiology of yellow fever: Identification of determinants of the 2016-2018 epidemics and at-risk areas in Brazil

by Benoit de Thoisy, Natalia Ingrid Oliveira Silva, L ívia Sacchetto, Giliane de Souza Trindade, Betânia Paiva Drumond Optimise control strategies of infectious diseases, identify factors that favour the circulation of pathogens, and propose risk maps are crucial challenges for global health. Ecological niche modelling, once relying on an adequate framework and environmental descriptors can be a helpful tool for s uch purposes. Despite the existence of a vaccine, yellow fever (YF) is still a public health issue. Brazil faced massive sylvatic YF outbreaks from the end of 2016 up to mid-2018, but cases in human and non-human primates have been recorded until the beginning of 2020. Here we used both human and mo nkey confirmed YF cases from two epidemic periods (2016/2017 and 2017/2018) to describe the spatial distribution of the cases and explore how biotic and abiotic factors drive their occurrence. The distribution of YF cases largely overlaps for humans and monkeys, and a contraction of the spatial exte nt associated with a southward displacement is observed during the second period of the epidemics. More contributive variables to the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of cases were related to biotic factors (mammal richness), abiotic factors (temperature and precipitation), and some human-related variab les (population density, human footprint, and human vaccination coverage). Both projections of the most favourable conditions showed similar trends with a contractio...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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In the last decades, a number of infectious viruses have emerged from wildlife or re-emerged, generating serious threats to the global health and to the economy worldwide. Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, Lassa fever, Dengue fever, Yellow fever, West Nile fever, Zika, and Chikungunya vector-borne diseases, Swine flu, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the recent Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are examples of zoonoses that have spread throughout the globe with such a significant impact on public health that the scientific community has been called for a rapid int...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The amotosalen/UVA PR system inactivated high titers of infectious YFV-17D in PC. This PR technology could reduce the risk of YFV TTI and help secure PC supplies in areas experiencing YFV outbreaks where massive vaccination campaigns are required. PMID: 31957887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Transfusion - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Transfusion Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs research efforts have advanced to understand the pathophysiology of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) and other epidemic viral infections and develop medical countermeasures such as vaccines, pregnant women have remained an underexamined subgroup. To better understand the implications of future outbreaks of VHF for pregnant women amidst an evolving vaccine landscape, we examine three pathogens —yellow fever, Ebola, and Lassa fever—each with different levels of evidence and understanding of disease in pregnancy and at varying stages of vaccine development.Recent FindingsThere are very li...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Zhimin Chen, Kaihui Liu, Xiuxiang Liu, Yijun LouAbstractThe control strategies of emergency infectious diseases are constrained by limited medical resources. The fractional dose vaccination strategy as one of feasible strategies was proposed in response to global shortages of vaccine stockpiles. Although a variety of epidemic models have been developed under the circumstances of limited resources in treatment, few models particularly investigated vaccination strategies in resource-limited settings. In this paper, we develop ...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
More than 1,500 deaths and 2,500 people sickened – that’s the recent account of the ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) raging in the country since last August, and recently declared a public health emergency of international concern. Experts say efforts to contain the virus are hindered by biological, public health, political, and cultural issues, but we looked around what digital health technologies could do to mitigate the spread and the devastation of the infectious disease. The Spaghetti-like virus… The lethal Ebola virus first appeared in 1976 around a river in Congo &nda...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine Africa AI artificial intelligence Congo digital digital health digital maps disease disease outbreak ebola epidemic Innovation technology Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Anna Dubankova, Evzen BouraAbstractYellow fever virus (YFV) is responsible for devastating outbreaks of Yellow fever (YF) in humans and is associated with high mortality rates. Recent large epidemics and epizootics and exponential increases in the numbers of YF cases in humans and non-human primates highlight the increasing threat YFV poses, despite the availability of an effective YFV vaccine. YFV is the first human virus discovered, but the structures of several of the viral proteins remain poorly understood. Here we report the structure ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Yellow fever virus (YFV) is responsible for devastating outbreaks of Yellow fever (YF) in humans and is associated with high mortality rates. Recent large epidemics and epizootics and exponential increases in the numbers of YF cases in humans and non-human primates highlight the increasing threat YFV poses, despite the availability of an effective YFV vaccine. YFV is the first human virus discovered, but the structures of several of the viral proteins remain poorly understood. Here we report the structure of the full-length NS5 protein, a key enzyme for the replication of flaviviruses that contains both a...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data revealed that YFV transmission persisted at the same Atlantic Forest area for at least three consecutive transmission seasons without the need of new introductions. Our real-time surveillance strategy permitted health authorities to take preventive actions within 48 h after the detection of the sick non-human primate. The local virus persistence and the proximity of the epizootic forest to urban areas reinforces the concern with regards to the risk of re-urbanisation and seasonal re-emergence of YFV, stressing the need for continuous effective surveillance and high vaccination coverage i...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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