Clinical evaluation of atlas- and deep learning-based automatic segmentation of multiple organs and clinical target volumes for breast cancer.

This study used contrast-enhanced planning computed tomography scans from 62 patients with breast cancer who underwent breast-conservation surgery. Contours of target volumes (CTVs), organs, and heart substructures were generated using two commercial ABAS solutions and DLBAS using fully convolutional DenseNet. The accuracy of the segmentation was assessed using 14 test patients using the Dice Similarity Coefficient and Hausdorff Distance referencing the expert contours. A sensitivity analysis was performed using non-contrast planning CT from 14 additional patients. Compared to ABAS, the proposed DLBAS model yielded more consistent results and the highest average Dice Similarity Coefficient values and lowest Hausdorff Distances, especially for CTVs and the substructures of the heart. ABAS showed limited performance in soft-tissue-based regions, such as the esophagus, cardiac arteries, and smaller CTVs. The results of sensitivity analysis between contrast and non-contrast CT test sets showed little difference in the performance of DLBAS and conversely, a large discrepancy for ABAS. The proposed DLBAS algorithm was more consistent and robust in its performance than ABAS across the majority of structures when examining both CTVs and normal organs. DLBAS has great potential to aid a key process in the radiation therapy workflow, helping optimise and reduce the clinical workload. PMID: 32991916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research

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Authors: Loeser H, Kraemer M, Gebauer F, Bruns C, Schröder W, Zander T, Alakus H, Hoelscher A, Buettner R, Lohneis P, Quaas A Abstract Background: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an interferon-inducible immune checkpoint expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). IDO is known as a poor prognostic marker in esophageal squamous cell cancer, while a positive effect was shown for breast cancer. A comprehensive analysis of IDO expression in a well-defined cohort of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is missing. Methods: We analyzed 551 patients with EAC using single-protein and multiplex immunohistoc...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: DDIR positivity does not predict improved response following oxaliplatin treatment in CRC. However, data presented here suggests the potential of the DDIR assay in identifying immune-rich tumours that may benefit from immune checkpoint blockade, beyond current use of MSI status. PMID: 33028592 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The literature on eating disorders and cancer risk is sparse with many gaps. Hormonal changes, sexual activity, nutritional status, vomiting and concomitant tobacco/alcohol abuse may explain increased/decreased cancer risk. Future large studies (now 1-366 cancer cases) that also include men (now 4.7%), bulimia nervosa (now 3.8%) and several cancer sites (now mainly breast cancer) are needed and should foresee longer follow-up time (now 5.4-15.2 years) and extensive confounder adjustment (now only age and sex). LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I, systematic review. PMID: 33025526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Eating and weight disorders : EWD - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Eat Weight Disord Source Type: research
This study aims to describe exposure of the oesophagus from modern breast cancer regimens.
Source: European Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: POSTERS A: Local Regional Treatment – Radiotherapy Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present study revealed that flurbiprofen inhibited COX2 expression in colorectal cancer, and affected the proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells. These results expand the understanding of the function of COX2 in colorectal cancer and the effect of flurbiprofen on COX2 expression. PMID: 32934701 [PubMed]
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
Conclusions and ImplicationsSarcopenia significantly affected a wide range of adverse health ‐related outcomes, particularly in patients of tumor and elderly populations. Because evidences of most outcomes were rated as “low” and “very low,” more prospective cohort studies are required in the future.
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe results showed similar incidence rate of gastrointestinal cancer in Markazi province to other provinces in Iran. This study found that stomach cancer is the most common cancer in the Markazi province; therefore, identifying effective and preventing factors is necessary.
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptors family and, together with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), plays an important role in the development of breast cancer, lung cancer, neuroblastoma, colorectal cancer, leukemia, cervical cancer, gallbladder cancer, gastric cancer, kidney cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, esophageal cancer, and head and neck cancer. Overexpression of these two factors has been associated with increased processes involved in carcinogenesis, such as invasion, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), angiog...
Source: Cytokine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research
Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to serve important roles in a variety of human tumor types. The lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 7 (SNHG7) is associated with a variety of cancer types, such as esophageal cancer, breast cancer and gastric neoplasia. Based on previous studies that examined SNHG7 expression in tumors, it has become clear that SNHG7 modulates tumorigenesis and cancer progression by acting as a competing endogenous RNA. SNHG7 can sponge tumor-suppressive microRNAs and regulate downstream signaling pathways. In addition, overexpression of SNHG7 is associated with the c...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Mol Clin Oncol Source Type: research
We describe the landscape of cyclin and interactive gene pathway alterations in 190,247 solid tumors. METHODS: Using comprehensive genomic profiling (315 genes,>500× coverage), samples were analyzed for alterations in activating/sensitizing cyclin genes (CDK4 amplification, CDK6 amplification, CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CDKN2B [loss], CDKN2A [loss], SMARCB1), hormone genes (estrogen receptor 1 [ESR1], androgen receptor [AR]), and co-alterations in genes leading to cyclin inhibitor therapeutic resistance (RB1 and CCNE1). RESULTS: Alterations in at least one cyclin activating/sensitizing gene occurred in 24% of ...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
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