The Helminth Parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus Attenuates EAE in an IL-4R α-Dependent Manner

Helminth parasites are effective in biasing Th2 immunity and inducing regulatory pathways that minimize excessive inflammation within their hosts, thus allowing chronic infection to occur whilst also suppressing bystander atopic or autoimmune diseases. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory lesions within the central nervous system; there are very limited therapeutic options for the progressive forms of the disease and none are curative. Here, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model to examine if the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus and its excretory/secretory products (HES) are able to suppress inflammatory disease. Mice infected with H. polygyrus at the time of immunization with the peptide used to induce EAE (myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, pMOG), showed a delay in the onset and peak severity of EAE disease, however, treatment with HES only showed a marginal delay in disease onset. Mice that received H. polygyrus 4 weeks prior to EAE induction were also not significantly protected. H. polygyrus secretes a known TGF-β mimic (Hp-TGM) and simultaneous H. polygyrus infection with pMOG immunization led to a significant expansion of Tregs; however, administering the recombinant Hp-TGM to EAE mice failed to replicate the EAE protection seen during infection, indicating that this may not be central to the disease protecting mechanism. Mice infected with H. polygyrus also showed a systemi...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Related Links:

(University of Nottingham) Parasitic worms could offer a new treatment hope for patients suffering from the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis, according to experts from the University of Nottingham.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news
Abstract Helminths, as complex pathogens, possess a large number of different epitopes, some of which may be similar to the epitopes of the host. Besides being the cause for the activation of self-reactive immune cells, molecular mimicry may also be the cause for the expansion of regulatory T cells, crucial for the host tolerance of self-antigens. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), caused by Trichinella spiralis infection or application of its muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (ES L1), was achieved through activation of Th2 and regulat...
Source: Immunobiology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Here we discuss the major implications of these findings for the association between microorganisms and cancer, and also between some immune pathologies, like autoimmune diseases, and cancer.
Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Semin Neurol 2019; 39: 383-390 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1687842Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are classically associated with immunosuppression arising from infection with human immunodeficiency virus and with various hematologic malignancies. However, over the past few years, they are increasingly associated with transplantation and various immunosuppressive treatments used to treat autoimmune diseases. They cause significant morbidity and mortality and remain a diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical signs and symptoms of infection and mimicry by various noninfectious causes. The pathogens a...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
In this study, herpes virus serological status and T cell, B cell, NK cell and monocyte populations were investigated in 251 ME/CFS patients, including 54 who were severely affected, and compared with those from 107 healthy participants and with 46 patients with Multiple Sclerosis. There were no differences in seroprevalence for six human herpes viruses between ME/CFS and healthy controls, although seroprevalence for the Epstein-Barr virus was higher in multiple sclerosis patients. Contrary to previous reports, no significant differences were observed in NK cell numbers, subtype proportions or in vitro responsiveness betwe...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was supported in part by the Projects: Redes Internacionales (REDI170651) (to AH and MI); Proyecto interno Universidad Autónoma de Chile (DIUA 134-2018) and by the Pilot Research Grant (PP-1805-30965) from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (to AH); Proyecto Genera-Autónoma N°UA 17-04 and FONDECYT de Inicio N° 11160592, CONICYT (to NE) and Proyecto Vicerrectoría de Investigación, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Puente P1802 (to CL). Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or fina...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions OCB are important biomarkers that can support MRI diagnostics and help to avoid false-positive MS diagnoses. Therefore, the revised McDonalds criteria have increased the importance of the OCB. New biomarkers such as AQP4 have now established themselves in clinical practice, and others such as Anti-MOG and NfL are about to enter clinical routine. An important focus in the search for new biomarkers is the monitoring of therapy efficacy and the prediction of severe side effects. Many other CSF molecules such as CHI3L1, IL-6, or CXCL13 show potential as markers for clinical practice, but further research is nee...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
. Harnett William Harnett Parasitic helminths and their isolated secreted products show promise as novel treatments for allergic and autoimmune conditions in humans. Foremost amongst the secreted products is ES-62, a glycoprotein derived from Acanthocheilonema viteae, a filarial nematode parasite of gerbils, which is anti-inflammatory by virtue of covalently-attached phosphorylcholine (PC) moieties. ES-62 has been found to protect against disease in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and airway hyper-responsiveness. Furthermore, novel PC-based synthetic small molecule analogues (SMAs)...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The review will describe a variety of specific inhibitor classes and conclude on recent and future therapeutic perspectives for this target. PMID: 29119937 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov Source Type: research
Before the medical community had better understanding of the mechanisms that cause disease, doctors believed certain ailments could originate from imbalances in the stomach. This was called hypochondriasis. (In Ancient Greek, hypochondrium refers to the upper part of the abdomen, the region between the breastbone and the navel.) This concept was rejected as science evolved and, for example, we could look under a microscope and see bacteria, parasites, and viruses. The meaning of the term changed, and for many years doctors used the word “hypochondriac” to describe a person who has a persistent, often inexplicab...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Digestive Disorders Health Source Type: blogs
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Autoimmune Disease | Multiple Sclerosis | Parasitic Diseases | Parasitology