Histone deacetylases as targets in autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases.

Histone deacetylases as targets in autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Adv Immunol. 2020;147:1-59 Authors: Hamminger P, Rica R, Ellmeier W Abstract Reversible lysine acetylation of histones is a key epigenetic regulatory process controlling gene expression. Reversible histone acetylation is mediated by two opposing enzyme families: histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Moreover, many non-histone targets of HATs and HDACs are known, suggesting a crucial role for lysine acetylation as a posttranslational modification on the cellular proteome and protein function far beyond chromatin-mediated gene regulation. The HDAC family consists of 18 members and pan-HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are clinically used for the treatment of certain types of cancer. HDACi or individual HDAC member-deficient (cell lineage-specific) mice have also been tested in a large number of preclinical mouse models for several autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases and in most cases HDACi treatment results in an attenuation of clinical disease severity. A reduction of disease severity has also been observed in mice lacking certain HDAC members. This indicates a high therapeutic potential of isoform-selective HDACi for immune-mediated diseases. Isoform-selective HDACi and thus targeted inactivation of HDAC isoforms might also overcome the adverse effects of current clinically approved pan-HDACi. This review provides a brief overview about the fundamental f...
Source: Advances in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Adv Immunol Source Type: research

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Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Anxiety and Panic General Medications Not Crazy Podcast Source Type: blogs
Hairy, scary, funny looking or pretty cool. The beasts in the Harry Potter universe are quite the diverse bunch with unique abilities and qualities. Just like new digital health tech targeted to fight autoimmune diseases or for the main part: their symptoms. Source: Warner Bros. Framestore The common ground for completely different illnesses like type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis is an immune system disfunction. Immune cells and mechanisms target the body’s own cells and structures, deconstructing it bit by bit and inducing inflammation. An estim...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Biotechnology Future of Medicine chatbot diabetes digital health sleep optimization chronic pain chronic illness skin coronavirus autoimmune disease Source Type: blogs
Choi The integration of computational techniques into drug development has led to a substantial increase in the knowledge of structural, chemical, and biological data. These techniques are useful for handling the big data generated by empirical and clinical studies. Over the last few years, computer-aided drug discovery methods such as virtual screening, pharmacophore modeling, quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis, and molecular docking have been employed by pharmaceutical companies and academic researchers for the development of pharmacologically active drugs. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a vital ...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract During host immune response, an initial and sufficient activation is required to avoid infection and cancer, yet an excessive activation bears the risk of autoimmune reactivity and disease development. This fastidious balance of the immune system is regulated by co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules, also known as immune checkpoints. Both excessive co-stimulation and insufficient co-inhibition can induce the activation and proliferation of autoreactive cells that may lead to the development of autoimmune diseases. During the last decade, a growing number of new immune checkpoint receptors and ligands...
Source: Journal of Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Autoimmun Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Joseph D. Romano1,2,3,4 and Nicholas P. Tatonetti1,2,3,4* 1Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States 2Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States 3Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States 4Data Science Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States The discovery of new pharmaceutical drugs is one of the preeminent tasks—scientifically, economically, and socially—in biomedical research. Advances in informatics and computational biology have increased productivity at many stag...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Kristina Kuhbandner1, Anna Hammer1, Stefanie Haase1, Elisa Terbrack1, Alana Hoffmann2, Angela Schippers3, Norbert Wagner3, Rehana Z. Hussain4, William A. Miller-Little4, Andrew Y. Koh5, Joshua S. Stoolman6, Benjamin M. Segal6, Ralf A. Linker7† and Olaf Stüve4,8*† 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany 2Department of Molecular Neurology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany 3Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany 4...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CD4+ T-Cells With High Common γ Chain Expression and Disturbed Cytokine Production Are Enriched in Children With Type-1 Diabetes Julia Seyfarth1*, Nathalie Mütze1, Jennifer Antony Cruz1, Sebastian Kummer1, Christina Reinauer1, Ertan Mayatepek1, Thomas Meissner1,2 and Marc Jacobsen1 1Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital, Medical Faculty, Düsseldorf, Germany 2German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Partner Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany The common gamma chain (γc) contributes to the formation of different c...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Michio Kawano1, Masaya Miyoshi1 and Tadaaki Miyazaki2* 1Milk Science Research Institute, Megmilk Snow Brand Co. Ltd., Saitama, Japan 2Department of Probiotics Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171 (LH2171) has been reported to ameliorate the development of autoimmune diseases, such as collagen-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalitis in mice and inhibit interleukin (IL)-6 production in antigen-presenting cells in vitro. Regulation of cytokine production by antigen-presenting cells might be critical for the anti-inflamma...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions In conclusion, articles in this Research Topic made a very significant contribution to our understanding of the role played by environmental factors, dysbiotic conditions, and infections in triggering diseases. Since this is a rapidly expanding area of research, many other factors contributing to the onset of these diseases are not covered here. We are confident, however, that further studies will expand the list as well as bring a better understanding of mechanisms involved in the onset of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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