A Narrative Review of the Anti ‐Hyperglycemic and Satiating Effects of Fish Protein Hydrolysates and Their Bioactive Peptides

This review summarizes fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) and their effect on blood glucose/obesity. Specific peptides in these FPH are also discussed. The results show that FPH are generally useful for lowering blood glucose and managing appetite. By addressing methodological issues, and if future studies focus on discovering mechanism of action, they could be useful for future nutritional interventions. AbstractPrevalence of type 2 diabetes and overweight/obesity are increasing globally. Food supplementation as a preventative option has become an attractive option in comparison to increased pharmacotherapy dependency. Hydrolysates of fish processing waste and by ‐products have become particularly interesting in a climate of increased food wastage awareness and are rapidly gaining traction in food research. This review summarizes the available research so far on the potential effect of these hydrolysates on diabetes and appetite suppression. Scopus and Web of Science are searched using eight keywords (fish, hydrolysate, peptides, satiating, insulinotropic, incretin, anti‐obesity, DPP‐4 [dipeptidylpeptidase‐4/IV]) returning a total of 2549 results. Following exclusion criteria (repeated appearances, non‐fish marine sources [e.g., macroalgae], and irrelevant bioactivities [e.g., immunomodulatory, anti‐thrombotic]), 44 relevant publications are included in this review. Stimulation of hormone secretion, regulation of glucose uptake, anorexigenic potential, identified me...
Source: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Source: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractThe growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes represents a growing health emergency, exemplified by a marked increase in cardiovascular and renal disease. As such, healthcare systems are increasingly focussing on therapeutic approaches to address these challenges. Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) evaluating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues have previously observed significant improvements in major adverse cardiac events in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, their impact in obese people without T2D is unknown. The SELECT study is the first pharmacotherapy study in obesity powered for cardiovasc...
Source: Diabetes Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Abstract Obesity has become a global health problem. Lifestyle modification and medical treatment only appear to yield short-term weight loss. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most popular bariatric procedure, and it sustains weight reduction and results in the remission of obesity-associated comorbidities for obese individuals. However, patients who undergo this surgery may develop hypoglycemia. To date, the diagnosis is challenging and the prevalence of post-RYGB hypoglycemia (PRH) is unclear. RYGB alters the anatomy of the upper gastrointestinal tract and has a combined effect of caloric intake restrictio...
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with obesity and risk for type 2 diabetes. In this community-based study, we thoroughly investigated fatty acid metabolism, incretin response, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, and autonomic nerve activity in men with or without OSA.MethodsFifteen men without diabetes but with signs of severe OSA, defined as apnea –hypopnea index (AHI)>30, and 15 age- and BMI-matched men without OSA (AHI  
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ller TD Abstract Derangements in triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism (dyslipidemia) are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases in obese and type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. An emerging class of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues and next generation peptide dual-agonists such as GLP-1/glucagon or GLP-1/GIP could provide effective therapeutic options for T2D patients. In addition to their role in glucose and energy homeostasis, GLP-1, GIP and glucagon serve as regulators of lipid metabolism. This review summarizes the current knowledge in GLP-1, glucagon and GIP effects on lipid ...
Source: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Drug Deliv Rev Source Type: research
AbstractAims/hypothesisThe small intestine plays an important role in hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity, as shown by bariatric surgery. Our goal was to study whether routes and dose of glucose administration have an acute impact on insulin sensitivity. The primary endpoint of this proof-of-concept study was the difference in insulin-mediated metabolic clearance rate (MCR/I) of glucose between the oral and intravenous routes of glucose administration. Secondary endpoints were differences in insulin effect on proteolysis, ketogenesis, lipolysis and glucagon levels.MethodsIn this parallel cohort study, we administere...
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsTo our knowledge, no study has examined the detailed dynamic changes in glucose and insulin homeostasis in this number of participants undergoing SG in relation to incretin hormones GIP and GLP-1. This current study supports the role of SG for the treatment of obesity-related glucose dysregulation.
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
AbstractGender and biological sex impact the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including metabolic disorders such as diabetes. In most parts of the world, diabetes is more prevalent in men than in women, especially in middle-aged populations. In line with this, considering almost all animal models, males are more likely to develop obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia than females in response to nutritional challenges. As summarised in this review, it is now obvious that many aspects of energy balance and glucose metabolism are regulated differently in males and females and influence their predisposition to type ...
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThere were rapid changes within 4 weeks after RYGB: signs of enhanced parasympathetic nerve activity, reduced morning cortisol, and enhanced incretin and glucagon responses to glucose. The findings suggest that neurohormonal mechanisms can contribute to the rapid improvement of insulin resistance and glycemia following RYGB in type 2 diabetes.
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Abstract The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients. GIP has a variety of effects on different systems, including the potentiation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells after food intake (i.e. incretin effect), which is probably the most important. GIP effects are mediated by the GIP receptor (GIPR), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in several tissues, including islet β-cells, adipocytes, bone cells, and brain. As well as its involvement in metabolic disorders (e.g. it contributes to the impair...
Source: ENDOCR REV - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research
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