Cartilage tissue engineering for craniofacial reconstruction.

This article introduces the basic concepts of cartilage tissue engineering and reviews recent progress in the field, with a focus on craniofacial reconstruction and facial aesthetics. The basic concepts of tissue engineering consist of cells, scaffolds, and stimuli. Generally, the cartilage tissue engineering process includes the following steps: harvesting autologous chondrogenic cells, cell expansion, redifferentiation, in vitro incubation with a scaffold, and transfer to patients. Despite the promising prospects of cartilage tissue engineering, problems and challenges still exist due to certain limitations. The limited proliferation of chondrocytes and their tendency to dedifferentiate necessitate further developments in stem cell technology and chondrocyte molecular biology. Progress should be made in designing fully biocompatible scaffolds with a minimal immune response to regenerate tissue effectively. PMID: 32971590 [PubMed]
Source: Archives of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Arch Plast Surg Source Type: research

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The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the synovial joint of craniofacial complex and is critical for dental occlusion, mastication, and speech. TMJ trauma and diseases, such as osteoarthritis, are debilitating and compromise quality of life. Current TMJ treatments are two-fold, involving either palliative care or invasive total joint replacement surgeries. There are no minimally invasive, regenerative TMJ therapies. We have identified TMJ-specific fibrocartilage stem cells that self-organize and regenerate cartilage, fat and vascularized bone. Here we define heterogeneous populations of TMJ fibrocartilage stem cells and the...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video
Soft-tissue contour deficiencies depend on various origins including esthetics, congenital and post trauma asymmetries, post tumor defects, and chronic wound sequelae. Reconstructions or repairs are still a challenge today. Fat grafting is an old reconstructive technique dating back to 1893, but it has only recently become popular, especially among plastic surgeons. Being generally disregarded by medical practitioners for many years, adipose tissue has come into the spotlight because it is omnipresent and easily obtainable in substantial quantities with little patient discomfort and no relevant donor-site morbidity. Partic...
Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Despite improved surgical techniques in palatoplasty a number of patients will present post-operatively with incomplete velopharyngeal closure due to several reasons including inherent shortness of the palate or midline scar contracture. This incomplete closure of the velopharynx during speech, known as velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) causes hypernasality and nasal turbulence during speech. Treatment options in severe cases include revisions, pharyngeal flaps, and pharyngoplasties while in mild cases fat grafting has demonstrated its efficacy in improving velopharyngeal closure. Nevertheless, midline scarring can cause v...
Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
This article examines recent innovations that have affected the field as well as presenting research leading to future advancement. Innovations include the use of virtual surgical planning and three-dimensional printing in craniofacial reconstruction, advances in intraoperative navigation and imaging, as well as postoperative monitoring, development of minimally invasive reconstructive microsurgery techniques, integration of regenerative medicine and stem cell biology with reconstruction, and the dramatic advancement of face transplant.
Source: Clinics in Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
Synovial cell sarcomas are malignant tumors originating from pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells, unlike its name. It is a common tumor in the periarticular area, accounting for 8% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Head and neck are among the rarest areas of this tumor. Synovial sarcomas of the head and neck are more aggressive than those seen in other regions and are associated with remarkable mortality and morbidity. Treatment of synovial sarcomas of the head and neck is usually extensive local excision and additional radiation and/or chemotherapy may be performed.
Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: Brief Clinical Studies Source Type: research
Odontogenic myxoma is a benign tumor, mostly located in the mandible. It shows locally aggressive behavior and requires surgical removal. Common treatment options for reconstructing the bone defects are immediate or delayed autologous bone graft or free flap. In this article, the authors present the successful reconstruction with autogenous bone graft and autologous human bone marrow mesenchymal stem, followed by distraction osteogenesis, dental implant placement and prosthodontic restoration in the mandibular defect.
Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: Brief Clinical Studies Source Type: research
Conclusions: Pretreatment of hyaluronidase on the fat graft recipient site is a good option to enhance the outcome of the fat graft in the clinical setting.
Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Abstract Craniofacial skeletal muscle is composed of approximately 60 muscles, which have critical functions including food uptake, eye movements and facial expressions. Although craniofacial muscles have significantly different embryonic origin, most current skeletal muscle differentiation protocols using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are based on somite-derived limb and trunk muscle developmental pathways. Since the lack of a protocol for craniofacial muscles is a significant gap in the iPSC-derived muscle field, we have developed an optimized protocol to generate craniofacial myogenic precursor c...
Source: Biomaterials - Category: Materials Science Authors: Tags: Biomaterials Source Type: research
Summary: Organoids are in vitro miniaturized organ models—or, colloquially, “organs in a dish.” These 3-dimensional, multicellular structures are classically derived from pluripotent or multipotent stem cells. When guided by tissue-specific molecular factors, these cells exhibit self-organizing abilities that allow them to accurately recapitulate the architecture and function of the organ of interest. Organoid technology is a rapidly expanding field that endows researchers with an unprecedented ability to recreate, study, and manipulate complex biologic processes in vitro. When compared with standard 2- a...
Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Special Topic Source Type: research
A team of UCLA School of Dentistry researchers has developed the first adhesive hydrogel specifically to regenerate bone and tissue defects following head and neck surgeries. Their invention was inspired in part by the way that marine mussels can stick to wet surfaces.Their research is published online in the journal Science Translational Medicine.Over the past few years, surgeons and clinicians have begun using hydrogels to administer therapeutic drugs and stem cells to help regenerate lost tissues and bone defects. This approach has advantages over the previous standard treatment, bone grafts, which can lead to infl...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
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