The synthetically produced predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline increases alcohol self-administration and alters basolateral amygdala response to alcohol in rats

AbstractPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric illness that can increase the risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). While clinical data has been useful in identifying similarities in the neurobiological bases of these disorders, preclinical models are essential for understanding the mechanism(s) by which stressors increase the risk for escalated alcohol consumption. The purpose of these studies was to examine if exposure of male Long-Evans rats to the synthetically derived predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT; a component of fox feces) would increase sweetened alcohol self-administration, potentially by facilitating transfer of salience towards cues, and alter neuronal response to alcohol as measured by the immediate early gene c-Fos. In experiment 1, rats exposed to repeated (4 ×) TMT showed reductions in port entries in Pavlovian conditioned approach and increases in sweetened alcohol self-administration. In experiment 2, rats exposed to repeated TMT showed blunted basolateral amygdala c-Fos response to alcohol. In experiment 3, rats exposed to single, but not repeated T MT, showed increases in sweetened alcohol self-administration, and no change in anxiety-like behavior or hyperarousal. In experiment 4, rats continued to show a significant corticosterone response to TMT after repeated exposures. In summary, exposure of male rats to TMT can cause escalations in swee tened alcohol self-administration and reduction in BLA ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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Abstract Suicide is preventable. Nevertheless, each year 800,000 people die of suicide in the world. While there is evidence indicating that suicide rates de-crease during times of crises, they are expected to increase once the immediate crisis has passed. The COVID-19 pandemic affects risk and pro-tective factors for suicide at each level of the socio-ecological model. Economic downturn, augmented barriers to accessing health care, increased access to suicidal means, inappropriate media reporting at the societal level; deprioritization of mental health and preventive activities at the community level; interp...
Source: World Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: World Psychiatry Source Type: research
AbstractThe present study examined the course of diagnosed alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a cohort of Australian veterans of the Vietnam War (N = 388) who were assessed 22 and 36 years after returning home. Standardized interviews provided data on AUDs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychiatric diagnoses, and combat exposure. Overall, 148 veterans (38.1%) had no history of alcohol ‐related diagnoses, 151 veterans (38.9%) had a past AUD diagnosis that was not current at the second assessment point, and 89 veterans (22.9%) had a current AUD diagnosis at the second assessment. Less education, lower intelligen...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn this study, we found that mental health problems are highly prevalent among FSWs in LMICs and are strongly associated with common risk factors. Study findings support the concept of overlapping vulnerabilities and highlight the urgent need for interventions designed to improve the mental health and well-being of FSWs.
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Adults who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual with alcohol or tobacco use disorder are more likely to have another psychiatric illness than adults who identify as heterosexual, according to areport inAJP in Advance.“[I]t is important for clinicians to know that psychiatric comorbidities are more often present than not among sexual minorities who present with an alcohol or tobacco use disorder,” wrote Rebecca Evans-Polce, Ph.D., of the University of Michigan and colleagues. “This research suggests that in tegrated substance use and mental health prevention and treatment programs are needed, particularly...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: ajp in advance alcohol use disorder National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions –III sexual minorities substance use tobacco use disorder Source Type: research
This study aimed to assess changes following acute and maintenance ketam...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: Of the seven prevention studies included in this review, none assessed whether prevention interventions reduced the incidence of mental disorders and there may be no evidence for any differences in acceptability. Additionally, for both child and adolescent populations and adult populations, a very small number of RCTs with low quality evidence on the review's secondary outcomes (changes in symptomatology at endpoint) did not suggest any beneficial effect for the studied prevention interventions. Confidence in the findings is hampered by the scarcity of prevention studies eligible for inclusion in the review, b...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
This study reported a high prevalence of CMDs in South Asian countries; necessitating further research on psychiatric epidemiology in those contexts. It informs the need for effective policymaking and implementation of culturally appropriate multilevel interventions.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may stem from the formation of aberrant and enduring aversive memories. Some PTSD patients have recreationally used Cannabis, probably aiming at relieving their symptomatology. However, it is still largely u...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Unintentional drug overdose and suicide have emerged as public health problems. Prescription drug misuse can elevate risk of overdose. Severe suicidal ideation increases risk of suicide. We identified shared correlates of both risk factors to inform cross-cutting prevention efforts. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Military Suicide Research Consortium's Common Data Elements survey; 2012-2017 baseline data collected from 10 research sites were analyzed. The sample included 3962 clinical patients at risk of suicide. Factors examined in relation to the outcomes, prescri...
Source: Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Suicide Life Threat Behav Source Type: research
In a neighborhood where a mass shooting had occurred less than a year before, one-third of social services staff screened positive for mental health disorders, according to astudy published inJAMA Network Open.Eleven months after the shooting at the Tree of Life synagogue on October 27, 2018, in Pittsburgh, Rafael J. Engel, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh and colleagues reached out to nonprofit organizations in the synagogue ’s neighborhood. Eight executives of the social service agencies and educational institutions emailed surveys to their staffs aimed at measuring mental health symptoms , comprisi...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: anxiety depression gun violence JAMA Network Open mass shooting posttraumatic stress disorder Rafael Engel substance use disorder suicidal ideation Tree of Life synagogue Source Type: research
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