Pathogenesis of COVID-19-induced ARDS: implications for an ageing population

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has elicited a swift response by the scientific community to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced lung injury and develop effective therapeutics. Clinical data indicate that severe COVID-19 most commonly manifests as viral pneumonia-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a clinical entity mechanistically understood best in the context of influenza A virus-induced pneumonia. Similar to influenza, advanced age has emerged as the leading host risk factor for developing severe COVID-19. In this review we connect the current understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle and host response to the clinical presentation of COVID-19, borrowing concepts from influenza A virus-induced ARDS pathogenesis and discussing how these ideas inform our evolving understanding of COVID-19-induced ARDS. We also consider important differences between COVID-19 and influenza, mainly the protean clinical presentation and associated lymphopenia of COVID-19, the contrasting role of interferon- in mediating the host immune response to these viruses, and the tropism for vascular endothelial cells of SARS-CoV-2, commenting on the potential limitations of influenza as a model for COVID-19. Finally, we explore hallmarks of ageing that could explain the association between advanced age and susceptibility to severe COVID-19.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Back to Basics Source Type: research

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The recent pandemic of coronavirus infectious illness 2019 (COVID19) triggered by SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread around the globe, generating in severe events an acute, highly lethal pneumonia and death. In the past two hitherto similar CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) also gained universal attention as they produced clinical symptoms similar to those of SARS-CoV-2 utilizing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) to go into the cells. COVID-19 may also present with overtly neurological symptoms. The pro...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionFavipiravir may be an effective option for the treatment of COVID-19-infected patients with ESRD.
Source: CEN Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Basel, 04 September 2020 - Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced that the cobas ® SARS-CoV-2&Influenza A/B Test for use on the cobas ® 6800/8800 Systems has received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This test is intended for the simultaneous qualitative detection and differentiation of SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A and Influenza B in patients suspected by their healthcare provider of having respiratory viral infection consistent with COVID-19. Additionally, it is available in markets accepting the CE mark.“With the approaching flu season, this new ...
Source: Roche Media News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Over the past few years, Professor Zhang Yongzhen has made it his business to sequence thousands of previously unknown viruses. But he knew straight away that this one was particularly nasty. It was about 1:30 p.m. on Jan. 3 that a metal box arrived at the drab, beige buildings that house the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. Inside was a test tube packed in dry ice that contained swabs from a patient suffering from a peculiar pneumonia sweeping China’s central city of Wuhan. But little did Zhang know that that box would also unleash a vicious squall of blame and geopolitical acrimony worthy of Pandora herself....
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 overnight Source Type: news
Over the past few years, Professor Zhang Yongzhen has made it his business to sequence thousands of previously unknown viruses. But he knew straight away that this one was particularly nasty. It was about 1:30 p.m. on Jan. 3 that a metal box arrived at the drab, beige buildings that house the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. Inside was a test tube packed in dry ice that contained swabs from a patient suffering from a peculiar pneumonia sweeping China’s central city of Wuhan. But little did Zhang know that that box would also unleash a vicious squall of blame and geopolitical acrimony worthy of Pandora herself....
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 overnight Source Type: news
The last time most of us gave any thought to antibodies was probably in high school biology, but we’re getting a crash refresher course thanks to COVID-19. They are, after all, the key to our best defenses against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that’s caused the global pandemic. People who have been infected likely rely on antibodies to recover, and antibodies are what vaccines are designed to produce. Or at least that’s what infectious-disease and public-health experts assume for now. Because SARS-CoV-2 is such a new virus, even the world’s best authorities aren’t yet sure what it will take to build p...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Source Type: news
AbstractThe pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID ‐19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), has affected millions of people worldwide. To date, there are no proven effective therapies for this virus. Efforts made to develop antiviral strategies for the treatment of COVID‐19 are underway. Respiratory viral infections, such as influenza, predispose patients to co‐infections and these lead to increased disease severity and mortality. Numerous types of antibiotics such as azithromycin have been employed for the prevention and treatment of bacterial co‐infection and secondary b...
Source: IUBMB Life - Category: Research Authors: Tags: CRITICAL REVIEW Source Type: research
It wasn’t greed, or curiosity, that made Li Rusheng grab his shotgun and enter Shitou Cave. It was about survival. During Mao-era collectivization of the early 1970s, food was so scarce in the emerald valleys of southwestern China’s Yunnan province that farmers like Li could expect to eat meat only once a year–if they were lucky. So, craving protein, Li and his friends would sneak into the cave to hunt the creatures they could hear squeaking and fluttering inside: bats. Li would creep into the gloom and fire blindly at the vaulted ceiling, picking up any quarry that fell to the ground, while his companion...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 feature Magazine Source Type: news
The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to cause havoc globally, resulting in unprecedented healthcare, societal and economic disruption. People with diabetes have been shown to be at higher risk of complications and death when exposed to pneumonia, influenza and other coronaviruses. Despite pandemic scale infection, there is currently limited understanding on the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 on people with diabetes.
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractCOVID-19 is an emerging infection caused by a novel coronavirus that is moving so rapidly that on 30 January 2020 the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and on 11 March 2020 as a pandemic. An early diagnosis of COVID-19 is crucial for disease treatment and control of the disease spread. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated a low sensibility; therefore chest computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role not only in the early detection and diagnosis, especially for false negative RT-PCR tests, but also in monito...
Source: La Radiologia Medica - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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