Metformin: A Prospective Alternative for the Treatment of Chronic Pain

Metformin (biguanide) is a drug widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This drug has been used for 60 years as a highly effective antihyperglycemic agent. The search for the mechanism of action of metformin has produced an enormous amount of research to explain its effects on gluconeogenesis, protein metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, oxidative stress, glucose uptake, autophagy and pain, among others. It was only up the end of the 1990s and beginning of this century that some of its mechanisms were revealed. Metformin induces its beneficial effects in diabetes through the activation of a master switch kinase named AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Two upstream kinases account for the physiological activation of AMPK: liver kinase B1 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2. Once activated, AMPK inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which in turn avoids the phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathways and reduces cap-dependent translation initiation. Since metformin is a disease-modifying drug in type 2 diabetes, which reduces the mTORC1 signaling to induce its effects on neuronal plasticity, it was proposed that these mechanisms could also explain the antinociceptive effect of this drug in several models of chronic pain. These studies have highlighted the efficacy of this drug in chronic pain, such as that from neuropathy, insulin resistance, d...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and childhood maltreatment (CMT: parental neglect; emotional, physical and sexual abuse) have been linked to bipolar disorder but they are also common in major depressive disorder (MDD). Our objective was to investigate their association with the bipolar spectrum and antidepressant treatment outcome in 482 outpatients with DSM-IV MDD treated in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes trial for 28 weeks Bipolar spectrum score included age of onset
Source: International Clinical Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
We report the case of a 57-year-old woman diagnosed with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and comorbid FMD treated with weekly intranasal administrations of esketamine over a six-month follow-up period. A comprehensive clinical and psychometric assessment was carried out at different time points. After 2 months of treatment, a complete remission of motor and axial functional disturbances (athetosis, trunk torsion and genuflections) was detectable, along with a progressive improvement in depressive symptoms during follow-up until full remission. According to novel lines of evidence, glutamatergic transmission might play...
Source: International Clinical Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
Greek lawmakers have approved legislation making vaccination for COVID-19 mandatory for all people aged over 60 living in the country on pain of a monthly fine, to deal with an infection surge and the emergence of the omicron variant
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news
WINTER can worsen the symptoms of arthritis, worsening joint pains and inflammation. You can reduce the pain by changing your diet.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Diffusion-weighted imaging has made strides in research on its way to bein...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: Could nonscanning factors affect abbreviated MRI workflow? Breast MRI shows effects of IUDs on body Women give thumbs-up to abbreviated breast MRI Breast MRI during workup of DCIS can spur anxiety in women AI of MRI shows success in ruling out cancer in dense breasts
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
Insulin resistance is a cornerstone of obesity-related complications such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A high rate of lipolysis is known to be associated with insulin resistance, and inhibiting adipose tissue lipolysis improves obesity-related insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) signaling through serotonin receptor 2B (HTR2B) in adipose tissues ameliorates insulin resistance by reducing lipolysis in visceral adipocytes. Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) feeding increased Htr2b expression in epididymal white adipose tis...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
This study’s findings suggest the need to foster recognition of pandemic risks on specific groups of patients with psychiatric conditions and may drive alternative approaches to COVID-19 disease testing and interventions to improve clinical outcomes,” wrote Antonio L. Teixeira, M.D., Ph.D., o f the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston and colleagues.Teixeira and colleagues analyzed data from the electronic health records (EHRs) of more than 2.5 million patients in the Optum COVID-19 Electronic Health Record database, derived from a network of health care provider organizations across the United ...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: anxiety disorders COVID-19 JAMA Network Open mood disorders psychiatric disorders schizophrenia Source Type: research
Whether in front of the computer or TV, driving on long commutes, or attending a sporting event, the average person spends more than 12 hours a day sitting. This can take a serious toll on your body in a variety of ways, but muscle and joint pain can...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Orthopedic Surgery OTC Sports Medicine Source Type: blogs
View Original Article Here: Tai Chi For Seniors: Exercises, Benefits, and Tips For The Elderly Tai chi, a form of Chinese martial arts that focuses on slow, controlled movements. It’s low impact and gives people with limited mobility a chance to improve their balance, range of motion and coordination. Research shows that tai chi for seniors can reduce the incidence of falls in elderly and at-risk adults by about 43 percent. With fewer than 34 percent of aging adults getting enough exercise, it’s important for caregivers, older individuals and people who work with seniors to know about this gentle but effective ...
Source: Shield My Senior - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Senior Safety Source Type: blogs
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