Visceral leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia: from hundreds of cases to zero.

Visceral leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia: from hundreds of cases to zero. Acta Trop. 2020 Sep 17;:105707 Authors: Abuzaid AA, Aldahan MA, Helal MAA, Asiri AM, Alzahrani MH Abstract The kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has succeeded in bringing the reported numbers of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases from hundreds during the 1980s and 1990s to zero case in 2019. The endemicity of VL has been confined mainly to the Southwest regions, namely Jazan and Aseer regions. Leishmania donovani species have been identified as the causative species of VL, while L. infantum have been isolated only from dogs in the endemic areas. Many species of sand flies were caught in Southwest, but P. orientalis is the probable transmitter of the disease. The black rat (Rattus ratus) was found to be contributing to maintenance of the parasite life cycle. VL is primarily a disease of children, and 80% of cases were Saudi's, while cases from Yeminis nationality represent the majority of non- Saudi patients. The common clinical presentation consist of chronic fever, abdominal distention, weight loss, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory findings include: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperproteinaemia and hypergammaglobulinemia, low serum iron, and abnormal liver enzymes. Occurrence of jaundice has been identified as a bad prognostic sign. Diagnosis relying on direct smears from bone marrow aspirates was the commonest tool used, and also is advocated by the N...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

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