Transthyretin Amyloidosis: Update on the Clinical Spectrum, Pathogenesis, and Disease-Modifying Therapies

AbstractATTR amyloidosis is caused by systemic deposition of transthyretin (TTR) and comprises ATTRwt (wt for wild-type) amyloidosis, ATTRv (v for variant) amyloidosis, and acquired ATTR amyloidosis after domino liver transplantation. ATTRwt amyloidosis has classically been regarded as cardiomyopathy found in the elderly, whereas carpal tunnel syndrome has also become a major initial manifestation. The phenotypes of ATTRv amyloidosis are diverse and include neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, and oculoleptomeningeal involvement as the predominant features, depending on the mutation and age of onset. In addition to variant TTR, the deposition of wild-type TTR plays a significant role, even in patients with ATTRv amyloidosis. The formation of amyloid fibrils tends to occur in association with the basement membrane. The thickening or reduplication of the basement membrane surrounding endoneurial microvessels, which is similar to diabetic neuropathy, is observed in ATTRv amyloidosis, suggesting that common mechanisms, such as an accumulation of advanced glycation end products, may participate in the disease process. In addition to direct damage caused by amyloid fibrils, recent studies have suggested that the toxicity of nonfibrillar TTRs, such as TTR oligomers, participates in the process of tissue damage. Although liver transplantation has been performed for patients with ATTRv amyloidosis since 1990, late-onset patients were not eligible for this treatment. However, as the efficacy of...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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