Descriptive epidemiology of monkeypox in Nigeria, September 2017 –June 2019

We present a descriptive epidemiology of monkeypox outbreak in Nigeria from September 2017 to June 2019.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 0522 Source Type: research

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Abstract Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. In Cameroon, human monkeypox cases were confirmed in 2018, and outbreaks in captive chimpanzees occurred in 2014 and 2016. We investigated the OPXV serological status among staff at a primate sanctuary (where the 2016 chimpanzee outbreak occurred) and residents from nearby villages, and describe contact with possible monkeypox reservoirs. We focused specifically on Gambian rats (Cricetomys spp.) because it is a recognized possible reservoir and because contact with this species was common enough to render suffi...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
This report highlights the recent accomplishments of GVN researchers in several important areas of medical virology, including strategies for the eradication of smallpox, measles, polio, SARS and vector-borne or zoonotic infections, emergence and intervention strategies for retroviruses and arboviruses, preparedness for outbreaks of Filo- and other hemophilic viruses, pathogenesis, impact and prevention of respiratory viruses, as well as, viruses affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. Also threats in crisis settings like refugee camps were presented.
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
This report highlights the recent accomplishments of GVN researchers in several important areas of medical virology, including strategies for the eradication of smallpox, measles, polio, SARS and vector-borne or zoonotic infections, emergence and intervention strategies for retroviruses and arboviruses, preparedness for outbreaks of Filo- and other hemophilic viruses, pathogenesis, impact and prevention of respiratory viruses, as well as, viruses affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. Also threats in crisis settings like refugee camps were presented. PMID: 30690044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
by Sarah Anne J. Guagliardo, Mary G. Reynolds, Joelle Kabamba, Beata Nguete, Robert Shongo Lushima, Okito E. Wemakoy, Andrea M. McCollum Endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. Observed fluctuations in reported cases over time raises questions about when it is appropriate to mount a public health response, and what specific actions should be taken. We evaluated three different thresholds to differentiate between baseline and heightened disease incidence, and propose a novel, tiered algorithm for public health action. Monkeypox surv...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
The repeated outbreaks of zoonotic infectious diseases with epidemic potential in Central and West Africa, such as Ebola, Rift valley fever, Chikungunya and Dengue, continue to pose major public health threats to regional, continental and global health security (WHO, 2018a,b). Whilst lessons are being learnt from each outbreak (Zumla et al., 2017), and the ‘One Human-Environmental-Animal Health’ approach is gaining momentum (Eteng et al., 2018), much more remains to be done to achieve a substantial change of the status quo (Zumla et al., 2016).
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Vincent visits the Smithsonian Institution and speaks with Sabrina Sholts, Jon Epstein, and Ed Niles about the exhibit Outbreak: Epidemics in a Connected World. <span data-mce-type=”bookmark” style=”display: inline-block; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; line-height: 0;” class=”mce_SELRES_start”></span>&lt;span data-mce-type=”bookmark” style=”display: inline-block; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; line-height: 0;” class=”mce_SELRES_start”&gt;&lt;/span&gt;&amp;lt;span […]
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: This Week in Virology ebola virus epidemic influenza virus MERS National Museum of Natural History Nipah virus One Health outbreak SARS smallpox virus Smithsonian spillover viral viruses zoonosis zoonotic Source Type: blogs
We describe the surveillance and infection control measures undertaken during an outbreak due to an Orthopoxvirus occurred in January 2015 in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in the province of Rieti, Latio, Italy, which caused a human asymptomatic infection. According to the epidemiological investigation, the human transmission occurred after an unprotected exposure. The contacts among wild, captive and domestic animals and humans, together with decreased immunity against Orthopoxviruses in the community, may put animal handlers at risk of infection, especially after the cessation of smallpox vaccination. To reduce these threa...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: SHORT COMMUNICATION Source Type: research
This article considers the genetic engineering of vaccinia virus (VACV) to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of VACV strains engineered to lack specific immunomodulatory or host range proteins are described. The ultimate goal is to develop safer and more immunogenic VACV vaccines that induce long-lasting immunological memory.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study, DNA and fowlpox (FP) recombinants that expressed the VV L1R, A27L, A33R, and B5R genes were generated (4DNAmix, 4FPmix, respectively) and tested in mice using novel administration routes. Mice were primed with 4DNAmix by electroporation, and boosted with 4FPmix applied intranasally. The lethal VVIHD-J strain was then administered by intranasal challenge. All of the mice receiving 4DNAmix followed by 4FPmix, and 20% of the mice immunized only with 4FPmix, were protected. The induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses directly correlated with this protection. In particular, higher anti-A27 ant...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
In this study, DNA and fowlpox (FP) recombinants that expressed the VV L1R, A27L, A33R, and B5R genes were generated (4DNAmix, 4FPmix, respectively) and tested in mice using novel administration routes. Mice were primed with 4DNAmix by electroporation, and boosted with 4FPmix applied intranasally. The lethal VVIHD-J strain was then administered by intranasal challenge. All of the mice receiving 4DNAmix followed by 4FPmix, and 20% of the mice immunized only with 4FPmix, were protected. The induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses directly correlated with this protection. In particular, higher anti-A27 ant...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
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