Contemporary circulating enterovirus D68 strains have acquired the capacity for viral entry and replication in human neuronal cells

Background: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of the Picornaviridae family of single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. EV-D68 infection has historically been associated with respiratory illnesses in humans. However, in the summers of 2014, 2016, and 2018 EV-D68 outbreaks coincided with a spike in polio-like acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases. This raised concerns that EV-D68 could be the causative agent of AFM during these recent outbreaks.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 0578 Source Type: research

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(CNN) — Parents and pediatricians need to be on the lookout in the coming months for a rare, paralyzing condition that affects young children, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Tuesday. The polio-like condition, called acute flaccid myelitis or AFM, tends to peak every other year, and the last surge of cases was in 2018, when 238 cases were diagnosed across the US, the CDC said. Read: Acute Flaccid Myelitis Fact Sheet This year is likely to see another upsurge but things will be complicated by the coronavirus pandemic. “AFM is a priority for CDC as we prepare for a possible outbreak this ...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Boston News Featured Health Syndicated CBSN Boston Acute Flaccid Myelitis CNN Source Type: news
This study goes beyond previous work to provide a detailed comprehensive evaluation of the enterovirus surveillance and can be used to formulate a set of implementation plan and performance indicators for environmental surveillance. PMID: 32444474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and outcomes of AFM patients. We investigated the clinical and virologic information regarding the AFM patients, and real-time PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis were used to investigate the cause of AFM. Eighteen cases met the definition of AFM, with a median age of 4.05 years (range, 0.9–9 years), and nine (50%) were EV-D68 positive. Symptoms included acute flaccid limb weakness and cranial nerve dysfunction. On magnetic resonance imaging, 11 (61.1%) patients had spinal gray matter abnormalities. Electromyography results of 16 o...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
With Amy Rosenfeld Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) was first isolated from children with respiratory disease in 1962. No outbreaks of infection were detected until the late summer and early fall of 2014, and then in 2016 and 2018. During these epidemics of respiratory disease, some children developed polio-like paralysis. We have recently published a paper showing […]
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Basic virology Information acute flaccid myelitis astrocyte childhood paralysis enterovirus D68 neuron neurotropism poliovirus viral viruses Source Type: blogs
AbstractAn Italian 13-year-old boy immunosuppressed due to kidney transplant presented in November 2018 with acute flaccid paralysis with anterior horn cell involvement resembling the clinical, radiological, and laboratory features of poliomyelitis. Enterovirus was molecularly identified in cerebral spinal fluid and stool samples and the sequence analysis of the VP1 gene of enterovirus genome revealed the presence of Echovirus 30 both in CSF and in stool samples. Echovirus 30 is an emerging neurotropic virus able to cause outbreaks of aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis all over the world, but acute flaccid paralysi...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Carter Roberts’ motorized wheelchair didn’t arrive until the day he died. It had been a long time coming and his parents had fought hard to get it. The chair cost more than $32,000 and the insurance companies wouldn’t cover it, so the family went to court. One insurer eventually agreed to pay for some components of the chair but not the whole thing. And then none of it mattered anyway. On Sept. 22, 2018, the Roberts’ doorbell rang and the chair was delivered. Also on Sept. 22, 2018, Carter died, just three months shy of his sixth birthday. He had been largely paralyzed for the final two years of his...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Infectious Disease viruses Source Type: news
The TWiV team covers outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the US and poliovirus in the Philippines, and explain how a chemokine induced by HIV-1 infection helps release more virus particles from cells. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, Kathy Spindler, and Brianne Barker Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Poliomyelitis returns to the Philippines (Mashable, virology blog) EEE in the USA (Am J Trop Med Hyg) Chemokine helps HIV-1 release (eLIFE) Image credit Letters read o...
Source: This Week in Virology - MP3 Edition - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: podcasts
s Delpeyroux RNA recombination is a major driving force in the evolution and genetic architecture shaping of enteroviruses. In particular, intertypic recombination is implicated in the emergence of most pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, which have caused numerous outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide. Recent experimental studies that relied on recombination cellular systems mimicking natural genetic exchanges between enteroviruses provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of enterovirus recombination and enabled to define a new model of genetic plasticity for enteroviruses. Homolog...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
rke Tyler In 2014, the United States (US) experienced an unprecedented epidemic of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)-induced respiratory disease that was temporally associated with the emergence of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), a paralytic disease occurring predominantly in children, that has a striking resemblance to poliomyelitis. Although a definitive causal link between EV-D68 infection and AFM has not been unequivocally established, rapidly accumulating clinical, immunological, and epidemiological evidence points to EV-D68 as the major causative agent of recent seasonal childhood AFM outbreaks in the US. This review su...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusion: This review presents the current knowledge on acute flaccid myelitis with respect to the clinical presentation and its differential diagnosis with Guillain-Barr é syndrome and acute transverse myelitis. We also discuss the association with enterovirus D68 and the presumed pathophysiological mechanism of this infection causing anterior horn cell damage. Sharing clinical knowledge and insights from basic research is needed to make progress in diagnosis, trea tment, and prevention of this new polio-like disease.What is Known:•Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a polio-like condition characterized by rapid...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
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