Regulation of Angiotensin- Converting Enzyme 2 in Obesity: Implications for COVID-19

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Age, smoking, obesity, and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes have been described as risk factors for severe complications and mortality in COVID-19. Obesity and diabetes are usually associated with dysregulated lipid synthesis and clearance, which can initiate or aggravate pulmonary inflammation and injury. It has been shown that for viral entry into the host cell, SARS-CoV-2 utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors present on the cells. We aimed to characterize how SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates lipid metabolism pathways in the host and the effect of dysregulated lipogenesis on the regulation of ACE2, specifically in obesity. In our study, through the re-analysis of publicly available transcriptomic data, we first found that lung epithelial cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 showed upregulation of genes associated with lipid metabolism, including the SOC3 gene, which is involved in the regulation of inflammation and inhibition of leptin signaling. This is of interest as viruses may hijack host lipid metabolism to allow the completion of their viral replication cycles. Furthermore, a dataset using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity showed a significant increase in Ace2 expression in the lungs, which negatively correlated with the expression of genes that code for sterol response element-binding proteins 1 and 2 (SREBP). Suppression of Srebp1 showed a significan...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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Covid-19 is a recently-emerged infectious disease caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV2. SARS-CoV2 differs from previous coronavirus infections (SARS and MERS) due to its high infectivity (reproduction value, R0, typically 2–4) and pre- or asymptomatic transmission, properties that have contributed to the current global Covid-19 pandemic. Identified risk factors for disease severity and death from SARS-Cov2 infection include older age, male sex, diabetes, obesity and hypertension. The reasons for these associations are still largely obscure. Evidence is also emerging that SARS-Co...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
AbstractThe pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is causing high and rapid morbidity and mortality. Immune system response plays a crucial role in controlling and resolving the viral infection. Exogenous or endogenous glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased susceptibility to infections, due to impairment of the innate and adaptive immune system. In addition, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and thromboembolism are conditions overrepresented in patients with hypercortisolism. Thus patients with chronic glucocorticoid (GC) exc...
Source: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
From the beginning of 2020, the governments and the health systems around the world are tackling infections and fatalities caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) resulting in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This virus pandemic has turned more complicated as individuals with co-morbidities like diabetes, cardiovascular conditions and obesity are at a high risk of acquiring infection and suffering from a more severe course of disease. Prolonged viral infection and obesity are independently known to lower the immune response and a combination can thus result in a “cytokin...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
k G Abstract As of October 2020, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected over 33million individuals and killed over one million people worldwide. (https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html accessed October 1 2020) Obesity and its complications are linked to severe forms of COVID-19, favouring an increased hospitalization and mortality rate. Despite being the gold-standard for the treatment of selected individuals with severe obesity, there is scarce information on whether or not bariatric surgery modifies the prognosis of people...
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn this case series of 67 test ‐positive women with clinical presentation ranging from asymptomatic to manifest COVID‐19 disease few women presented with severe COVID‐19 illness, a majority had a vaginal birth at term with a healthy neonate that were test‐negative for SARS‐CoV‐2.
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Severe COVID-19 cases develop severe acute respiratory syndrome, which can result in multiple organ failure, sepsis, and death. The higher risk group includes the elderly and subjects with pre-existing chronic illnesses such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. To date, no specific treatment or vaccine is available for COVID-19. Among many compounds, naringenin (NAR) a flavonoid present in citrus fruits has been investigated for antiviral and...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 has created an urgent need for animal models to enable study of basic infection and disease mechanisms and for development of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Most research on animal models for COVID-19 has been directed toward rodents, transgenic rodents, and non-human primates. The primary focus has been on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is a host cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Among investigated species, irrespective of ACE2 spike protein binding, only mild (or no) disease has occurred following infection with SARS-CoV-2, suggest...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-COV-2 virus is a global pandemic impacting nearly 10 million people worldwide. Since the initial detection in December 2019, this novel coronavirus has posed major challenges to the human race. The disease has a varied spectrum of presentation with respiratory system being most commonly affected followed by the cardiovascular (CV) system in later stages of the disease.1 Multiple risk factors accounting for an adverse outcome include older age, male sex and presence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease and obesity.
Source: Heart and Lung - Category: Intensive Care Authors: Source Type: research
The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has had a global impact not seen for an infectious disease for over a century. This acute pandemic has spread from the East and has been overlaid onto a slow pandemic of metabolic diseases of obesity and diabetes consequent from the increasing adoption of a Western-lifestyle characterized by excess calorie consumption with limited physical activity. It has become clear that these conditions predispose individuals to a more severe COVID-19 with increased morbidity and mortality. There are many features of diabetes and obesity that may accentuate the clinical r...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
l;her M Abstract Obesity has been shown to increase the risk for more severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) courses and higher mortality particularly among younger (age
Source: Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Obesity (Silver Spring) Source Type: research
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