Lipophilic Extract and Tanshinone IIA Derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza Attenuate Uric Acid Nephropathy through Suppressing Oxidative Stress-Activated MAPK Pathways.
This study investigates the uricosuric and nephroprotective effects of the ethyl acetate extract of S. miltiorrhiza (EASM) and tanshinone IIA (a major component of S. miltiorrhiza, Tan-IIA) on UAN and explores the underlying molecular mechanism. Both EASM and Tan-IIA significantly decreased serum uric acid (SUA), serum creatinine (SCR), urine uric acid (UUA), and increased urine creatinine (UCR), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in experimental UAN mice. In adenine and potassium oxonate-induced mice, EASM and Tan-IIA treatment alleviated renal dysfunction and downregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, EASM treatment significantly prevented excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in uric acid-induced HK-2 cells and suppressed the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4). EASM also suppressed ROS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that both EASM and Tan-IIA demonstrated inhibitory effects on UAN through relieving NOX4-mediated oxidative stress and suppressing MAPK pathways activation. PMID: 32933312 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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