Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutic Candidates for COVID-19: A Poorly Understood Arena

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute onset pneumonia caused by a novel Betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in the Wuhan City of China in December 2019 and evolved into a global pandemic. To date, there are no proven drugs or vaccines against this virus. Hence, the situation demands an urgent need to explore all potential therapeutic strategies that can be made available to prevent the disease progression and improve patient outcomes. In absence of clinically proven treatment guidelines, several repurposed drugs and investigational agents are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for their probable benefits in the treatment of COVID-19. These include antivirals (remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, umifenovir, and favipiravir), interferon, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiparasitic drugs (ivermectin and nitazoxanide), biologics (monoclonal antibodies and interleukin receptor antagonist), cellular therapies (mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells), convalescent plasma, and cytokine adsorber. Though several observational studies have claimed many of these agents to be effective based on their in vitro activities and extrapolated evidence from SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemics, the currently available data remains inconclusive because of ill-defined patient selection criteria, small sample size, lack of concurrent controls, and use of intermediary outcomes instead o...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) recognized a novel coronavirus as the causative agent of a new form of pneumonia. It was subsequently named COVID-19 and reported as the source of a respiratory disease occurrence starting in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. It has been affirmed a public health emergency of international significance by the World Health Organization. It is regarded as a subset of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS); COVID-19 is triggered by a betacoronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, which affects the lower respiratory trac...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract Interspecies transmissions of viruses between animals and humans may result in unpredictable pathogenic potential and new transmissible diseases. This mechanism has recently been exemplified by the discovery of new pathogenic viruses, such as the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, Middle-East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus epidemic in Saudi Arabia, and the deadly outbreak of Ebola in West Africa. The. SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is having a massive global impact in terms of economic disruption, and, above all, human health. The di...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Ambrosi Sarshar Over the past two decades, there have been two major outbreaks where the crossover of animal Betacoronaviruses to humans has resulted in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In December 2019, a global public health concern started with the emergence of a new strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV) which has rapidly spread all over the world from its origin in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Betacoronavirus genus, which includes human SARS-CoV, MERS and two other human coronaviruses...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study, through a literature review and data collec tion, we focus on the selection and consideration of antitumor treatment strategies for advanced lung cancer during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.
Source: Medical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractIn December 2019, a cluster of cases with 2019 Novel Coronavirus pneumonia from Wuhan, China, aroused worldwide concern due to an escalating outbreak in all the countries in the world. Coronavirus belongs to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), that have caused human epidemics with high fatality. The spectrum of the novel coronavirus disease (SARS-Co-2 or COVID-19) ranges from asymptomatic infections to fatal pneumonia, and differs from other viral pulmonary infections. MERS-CoV is known to be potentiall...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractSince December 2019, the world is affected by an outbreak of a new disease named COVID-19, which is an acronym of ‘coronavirus disease 2019’. Coronaviruses (CoV) were assumed to be associated with mild upper respiratory tract infections, such as common cold. This perception changed in time due to occurrence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV in 2002 and the Middle East Respir atory Syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV in 2012, both inducing an epidemic severe viral pneumonia with potentially respiratory failure and numerous extra-pulmonary manifestations. The novel coronavi...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
I live-tweeted a fascinating and perhaps rather depressing meeting with William Haseltine via a Reuters Newsmaker Broadcast. His talk was upbeat but the message does not offer a positive outlook unless we can collaborate internationally to identify, trace, and isolate and go back to early antivirals to treat people urgently. A vaccine will probably never be found, we must stay on top of this virus when we get communities under control. Moreover, we must recognise that another emergent pathogen could appear any time. These are essentially my notes from Haseltines’s talk. Might we ever achieve herd immunity? There is n...
Source: David Bradley Sciencebase - Songs, Snaps, Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Sciencebase Source Type: blogs
I live-tweeted a fascinating and perhaps rather depressing meeting with William Haseltine via a Reuters Newsmaker Broadcast. His talk was upbeat but the message does not offer a positive outlook unless we can collaborate internationally to identify, trace, and isolate and go back to early antivirals to treat people urgently. A vaccine will probably never be found, we must stay on top of this virus when we get communities under control. Moreover, we must recognise that another emergent pathogen could appear any time. These are essentially my notes from Haseltines’s talk. Might we ever achieve herd immunity? There is n...
Source: David Bradley Sciencebase - Songs, Snaps, Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Sciencebase Source Type: blogs
In early April, about four months after a new, highly infectious coronavirus was first identified in China, an international group of scientists reported encouraging results from a study of an experimental drug for treating the viral disease known as COVID-19. It was a small study, reported in the New England Journal of Medicine, but showed that remdesivir, an unapproved drug that was originally developed to fight Ebola, helped 68% of patients with severe breathing problems due to COVID-19 to improve; 60% of those who relied on a ventilator to breathe and took the drug were able to wean themselves off the machines after 18...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Source Type: news
This article is republished from The Conversation. Read the original article. The post Coronavirus: Ten Reasons Why You Ought Not to Panic appeared first on Inter Press Service. Excerpt: Ignacio López-Goñi is microbiologist and works in University of Navarra (Spain). The post Coronavirus: Ten Reasons Why You Ought Not to Panic appeared first on Inter Press Service.
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health Coronavirus Source Type: news
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