Targeting glycosphingolipids for cancer immunotherapy

Aberrant expression of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) is a unique feature of cancer and stromal cells in tumor microenvironments. Although the impact of GSLs on tumor progression remains largely unclear, anticancer immunotherapies directed against GSLs are attracting growing attention. Here, we focus on GD2, a disialoganglioside expressed in tumors of neuroectodermal origin, and Globo H ceramide (GHCer), the most prevalent cancer ‐associated GSL overexpressed in a variety of epithelial cancers. We first summarize recent advances on our understanding of GD2 and GHCer biology and then discuss the clinical development of the first immunotherapeutic agent targeting a glycolipid, the GD2‐specific antibody dinutuximab, its app roved indications, and new strategies to improve its efficacy for neuroblastoma. Next, we review ongoing clinical trials on Globo H‐targeted immunotherapeutics. We end with highlighting how these studies provide sound scientific rationales for targeting GSLs in cancer and may facilitate a rational design of new GSL‐targeted anticancer therapeutics.
Source: FEBS Letters - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

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ine Rees Concetta Potenza This systematic review investigated the literature on acquired v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) inhibitor resistance in patients with melanoma. We searched MEDLINE for articles on BRAF inhibitor resistance in patients with melanoma published since January 2010 in the following areas: (1) genetic basis of resistance; (2) epigenetic and transcriptomic mechanisms; (3) influence of the immune system on resistance development; and (4) combination therapy to overcome resistance. Common resistance mutations in melanoma are BRAF splice variants, BRAF amplification, neuroblastoma...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptors family and, together with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), plays an important role in the development of breast cancer, lung cancer, neuroblastoma, colorectal cancer, leukemia, cervical cancer, gallbladder cancer, gastric cancer, kidney cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, esophageal cancer, and head and neck cancer. Overexpression of these two factors has been associated with increased processes involved in carcinogenesis, such as invasion, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), angiog...
Source: Cytokine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research
, Silva LM Abstract One of the models that best explains the cellular heterogeneity observed in central nervous system (CNS) tumors is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs can originate from differentiated adult cells that return to an undifferentiated stage through the mechanism known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this paper, we evaluated cellular and molecular heterogeneity and the participation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in glioblastoma (U-87 MG and LN-18) and neuroblastoma (KELLY and IMR-32) cell lines cultured in monolayer (2D) and neurosphere (CSC enrichment- 3D...
Source: Experimental and Molecular Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Exp Mol Pathol Source Type: research
Marieke A Peters, Marnix H Geukes Foppen, Christian U Blank, Marianne B CrijnsJournal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics 2020 16(1):170-172 With the discovery of v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) inhibitors, new treatment possibilities arose against metastatic melanoma. A frequent adverse effect of BRAF inhibitor therapy is the induction of epithelial proliferations such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous papilloma. Here, we describe a case in which a patient developed extensive anal epithelial proliferations resembling condylomata acuminata, after starting vemurafenib treatment. This a...
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Roşu GA, Furău GO, Ionescu CA, Dimitriu MCT, Neacşu A, Ioan RG, Călin FD, Matei A, Bănacu M, Popescu I, Gheorghiu D, Neacşu I, Bacalbaşa N, Furău CG Abstract Epithelial ovarian carcinoma makes up 90-95% of all ovarian malignancies, taking into account also low-malignant-potential tumors. The Krukenberg tumor is a rare metastatic adenocarcinoma (ADK) in the ovary, representing 1-2% of ovarian tumors. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms may exist when more than one cancerous tumor is diagnosed in the same or a different organ. The incidence of multiple primary cancers among malignancies is between 2...
Source: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology - Category: General Medicine Tags: Rom J Morphol Embryol Source Type: research
In this study, in vitro/in vivo expression, biomarker potential and genetic/epigenetic alterations of DNAJC10 were analyzed in breast cancer. METHODS: Real-time qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine the expression level of DNAJC10 gene in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. The Kaplan-Meier plotter was used to evaluate the survival prognostic value of DNAJC10 mRNA expression in breast cancer patients. Mutation screening software and methylation-specific PCR were used to screen genetic alterations and methylation status of DNAJC10 promoter regions, respectively. RESULTS: DNAJC1...
Source: Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Breast Cancer Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present study identified functional circRNAs and predicted their functionality in neuroblastoma cell lines, which not only improved the understanding of circRNAs in neuroblastoma, but also provided the evidences for the related researchers. PMID: 33000697 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Technol Cancer Res Treat Source Type: research
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Source: Biology of the Cell - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Biol Cell Source Type: research
We present a unique case of OMS related to a stage IIIC high grade serous ovarian carcinoma in a patient with germline BRCA2 mutation, with ten years of clinical follow up. This case report is presented to document the rare association of OMS with epithelial ovarian cancer. Additionally, in this case, OMS and epithelial cancer were successfully treated with medical therapy alone. This is the first report to our knowledge to document ten years of clinical follow up in this context, and to report that the association may not be evident at the time of ovarian cancer recurrence.
Source: Gynecologic Oncology Reports - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Abstract Over the past decades, studies of phytochemicals as modifiers of radiotherapeutic efficacy have become increasingly popular to improve the treatment outcome of human malignancies. In the current comprehensive review article, radiosensitizing effects of curcumin, a yellow-colored polyphenolic constituent of turmeric, in various preclinical cancer models, both In Vitro and In Vivo, are presented. Attenuation of radioadaptation and augmentation of irradiation-induced cancer cell killing are achieved through multifaceted action of curcumin on suppression of prosurvival and antiapoptotic factors. Mos...
Source: Nutrition and Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Nutr Cancer Source Type: research
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