Animal Models of Cryptococcus neoformans in Identifying Immune Parameters Associated With Primary Infection and Reactivation of Latent Infection
Cryptococcus species are environmental fungal pathogens and the causative agents of cryptococcosis. Infection occurs upon inhalation of infectious particles, which proliferate in the lung causing a primary infection. From this primary lung infection, fungal cells can eventually disseminate to other organs, particularly the brain, causing lethal meningoencephalitis. However, in most cases, the primary infection resolves with the formation of a lung granuloma. Upon severe immunodeficiency, dormant cryptococcal cells will start proliferating in the lung granuloma and eventually will disseminate to the brain. Many investigators have sought to study the protective host immune response to this pathogen in search of host parameters that keep the proliferation of cryptococcal cells under control. The majority of the work assimilates research carried out using the primary infection animal model, mainly because a reactivation model has been available only very recently. This review will focus on anti-cryptococcal immunity in both the primary and reactivation models. An understanding of the differences in host immunity between the primary and reactivation models will help to define the key host parameters that control the infections and are important for the research and development of new therapeutic and vaccine strategies against cryptococcosis.
by Sujiraphong Pharkjaksu, Kyung J. Kwon-Chung, John E. Bennett, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj Cryptococcosis has become a major global health problem since the advent of the HIV pandemic in 1980s. Although its molecular epidemiology is well-defined, using isolates recovered since then, no pre-HIV-pandemic era epidemiological data exist. We conducted a molecular epidemiological study using 228 isolates of theC.neoformans/C.gattii species complexes isolated before 1975. Genotypes were determined byURA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and multi-locus sequence typing. Population genetics were defined by nucleotid...
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2020Source: Journal de Mycologie MédicaleAuthor(s): Lurdeti Bastos da Silva, Douglas Bock, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Karine Ortiz Sanchotene, Rossana Patricia Basso, Jéssica Louise Benelli, Vanice Rodrigues Poester, Felipe Almeida da Silva, Luciana Trilles, Cecília Bittencourt Severo, David A. Stevens, Melissa Orzechowski Xavier
PMID: 32986969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Conditions: Cryptococcosis; Lung Adenocarcinoma Intervention: Diagnostic Test: A scoring system Sponsor: Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Shanghai, China Recruiting
PMID: 32948385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Cryptococcus is a conditional pathogenic fungus causing cryptococcosis, which is one of the most serious fungal diseases faced by humans. Lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA) is successfully applied to ...
Manisha Paul, Mohit Bhatia, Ranjana Rohilla, Udayakumar Sasirekha, Neelam KaisthaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2020 38(2):229-234 Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease with worldwide distribution and wide array of clinical manifestations, caused by encapsulated basidiomycetous yeasts called Cryptococcus spp. It has traditionally been considered an opportunistic infection known to occur in immunocompromised hosts, particularly those who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, this infection has also been reported in phenotypically 'normal' or otherwise clinically non-immunocompromised patient...