The Role of the Microbiome and Microbiome-Derived Metabolites in Atopic Dermatitis and Non-Histaminergic Itch

AbstractRecent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) have revealed that skin microbiome dysbiosis plays an important role in the disease. In this review, we describe how changes in the structure and function of the microbiome are involved in the pathogenesis of AD. We highlight recent data showing that differential changes in microbial diversity, both within and across communities from different body habitats (including the skin, gut, and oral mucosa), are associated with the development and severity of AD. We also describe recent evidence demonstrating that the metabolic activity of the skin microbiome can act as a regulator of inflammation, with alterations in the level of a skin microbiome-derived tryptophan metabolite, indole-3-aldehyde (IAId), being shown to play a role in AD. The various mechanisms by which interactions between the microbiome and components of the non-histaminergic pathway result in itch in AD are also discussed.
Source: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

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Conclusion: The findings of this study can help inform joint patient-physician decision making in managing moderate-to-severe AD. PMID: 33023361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AD, quality of life was most affected in patients with lesions in visible areas, including head/neck, hands/fingers, and upper extremities, with statistically significant associations for a number of DLQI domains. Physicians should be aware of the burden of AD lesions on QoL and consider having conversations with patients to better understand the impact of these lesions. Prior presentation: 28th Annual European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology Congress; 9–13 October 2019, Madrid, Spain. Poster number P0233.J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(10): 943-948. doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.5422. PMID...
Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Drugs Dermatol Source Type: research
Authors: Ständer S, Simpson EL, Guttman-Yassky E, Thyssen JP, Kabashima K, Ball SG, Rueda MJ, DeLozier AM, Silverberg JI Abstract Skin pain is increasingly recognized as an impactful symptom in atopic dermatitis (AD) because of its association with patient discomfort, disease burden, and reduced quality of life. Although the nature of skin pain in AD has not been systematically studied and is therefore not well understood, patients report soreness, discomfort, and tenderness that may reflect peripheral and central pain sensitization. The high prevalence of skin pain suggests that it is not adequately addressed...
Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Drugs Dermatol Source Type: research
This study discovered a novel neuro-epidermal BNP-TRPV3-Serpin E1-mediated pathway in severe atopic dermatitis (AD). Serpin E1 was identified as a new itch-inducer. We propose this pathway represents an important target for the treatment of AD.
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract An itch is defined as an unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch. Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and has a crucial role in pruriceptive processing in the spinal dorsal horn. It is well known that glutamate exerts its effects by binding to various glutamate receptors including α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, and that AMPA/kainate receptors play a crucial role in pruriceptive processing; however, the precise role of AMPA receptors remains uncertain. Perampanel, an antiepileptic drug, is an ant...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
This study aims to explore the anti-psoriatic effects of thymol in imiquimod (IMQ) induced mice, and elucidate the potential mechanisms for its therapeutic activities. Thymol reduced the scratching behavior in IMQ mice, and activated Ca2+ response in cervical DRG neurons via TRPM8 channel. Also, thymol alleviated psoriasis-like skin lesions, and attenuated the enhanced infiltration of dermal neutrophils, dendritic cells (DCs) and Th17 cells. In addition, it reversed the upregulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the skin (TNF-α, IL-22, IL-23, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17C, IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-γ) and ...
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Source Type: research
Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer ’s itch) caused by bird schistosome cercariae, released from intermediate host snails, is a common disorder also at higher latitudes. Several cases were observed in the artificial ...
Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Avian schistosomes, the causative agents of human cercarial dermatitis (or swimmer ’s itch), die in mammals but the mechanisms responsible for parasite elimination are unknown. Here we examined the role of reac...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: A higher frequency of hand washing during the COVID-19 reopening increased the incidence of ICD in children. Hand hygiene is essential in our fight against novel coronavirus, but prophylactic initiatives are important to reduce the possible long-term consequences of ICD in children. FUNDING: none TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04375410). PMID: 32800064 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Danish Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Dan Med J Source Type: research
Abstract Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in food is a public health concern; however, the effect of DON exposure on immune disorders including allergies remains unclear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of oral exposure to DON on pro-inflammatory and pro-pruritic responses in a mouse model of allergic dermatitis, which was generated by topical application of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI), a hapten that induces type-2 helper T cells. To evaluate acute exposure to DON, the mice were orally administered vehicle alone, 0.1 mg/kg DON, or 0.3 mg/kg DON 48, 24, and 1 h before the final ...
Source: Archives of Toxicology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Arch Toxicol Source Type: research
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