The Great Vaccine Race: Inside the Unprecedented Scramble to Immunize the World Against COVID-19

The cleverest of enemies thrive on surprise attacks. Viruses—and coronaviruses in particular—know this well. Remaining hidden in animal hosts for decades, they mutate steadily, sometimes serendipitously morphing into more effective and efficient infectious agents. When a strain with just the right combination of genetic codes that spell trouble for people makes the leap from animal to human, the ambush begins. Such was the case with SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus behind COVID-19, and the attack was mostly silent and insidious at first. Many people infected with SARS-CoV-2 remained oblivious as they served as the virus’s new home and allowed it to establish a foothold in the global human population. These hosts were the perfect base camp for launching the attack that has upended social norms, economies, political systems and more all across the world. The best hope for confronting this onslaught is a vaccine—if the furious research efforts underway yield effective shots, if manufacturers can distribute them to enough people and if enough of those people actually get immunized. Vaccines rely on the idea of herd immunity, a type of biological fortress in which the vast majority of the population is protected against infection. One way to get there is via natural infection, which involves enough people getting infected and recovering without serious consequences. But many public-health experts say pushing to open businesses and schools, so healthy people who...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Magazine Source Type: news

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This study estimated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among young and middle-aged adults in rural Morogoro, Tanzania. Furthermore, it explored factors associated with both prevalence and awareness of hypertension. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted as part of the cluster randomized controlled study of community health workers (CHWs) interventions for reduction of blood pressure in a randomly selected sample of young and middle-aged population in rural Morogoro. Sociodemographics, lifestyle-related factors, history of diagnosis, and treatment for hypertension were collected ...
Source: International Journal of Hypertension - Category: Cardiology Tags: Int J Hypertens Source Type: research
In this study, we present a consecutive series of patients with symptomatic TSS and report diagnostic and surgical challenges. We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series ofN = 8 patients with symptomatic TSS who underwent surgical treatment in at least one region of the spine. Patients presented with multiple complaints, including neurogenic claudication, progressive gait disturbances, and signs of radiculopathy and/or myelopathy, among others. Modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI) were obtained in pre- and postoperative period. Electro...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
AbstractThe negative impact on spinal diseases may apply not only to obesity but also to smoking. To investigate the influence of obesity and smoking on the development and recovery of lumbar disc herniation in young adults. Retrospective analysis of 97 patients who presented with lumbar disc herniation at the authors ’ department between 2010 and 2017. Data were collected using the patients’ digital health records including demographics, clinical and neurological characteristics, treatment details, and outcomes. Ninety-seven patients between 17 and 25 years were included in this retrospective analysis. Pa...
Source: Neurosurgical Review - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
Conclusions: Echocardiography may be useful for the management of selected COVID-19 patients, especially those with elevated D-Dimer and Troponin levels, in up to 16% of patients. PMID: 32963823 [PubMed]
Source: Cardiology Research and Practice - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiol Res Pract Source Type: research
Conclusion: The serum PDGF concentration in patients with acute coronary syndrome was significantly increased, especially in the local coronary artery. The serum Ang-1 in the coronary artery was significantly increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction and was related to the degree of coronary artery stenosis. Coronary sinus PDGF and Ang-1 levels can reflect the severity of lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome. PMID: 32963822 [PubMed]
Source: Cardiology Research and Practice - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiol Res Pract Source Type: research
Conclusion: The prevalence of WMSDs among bankers was high. The significant associated factors responsible for the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders include longer working experience, being above 30 years old, low educational status, physical exercise, job stress, poor posture, absence of breaks during working hours, and absence of ergonomic training. PMID: 32963658 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Pain Research and Management - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Pain Res Manag Source Type: research
Authors: Jaruvongvanich V, Maselli DB, Matar R, Abu Dayyeh BK Abstract The prevalence of obesity has been increasing on a global scale. However, less than 1% of patients eligible for bariatric surgery actually undergo weight loss surgery. Endobariatric therapies (EBTs) have emerged to bridge the obesity treatment gap, as they are less invasive, highly effective, and more broadly applicable to patients with mild to moderate obesity. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and primary obesity surgery endoluminal are the two most promising EBTs, altering stomach physiologies mimicking bariatric surgery. This review focuses on ...
Source: Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies - Category: Surgery Tags: Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol Source Type: research
Authors: Lin N, Li J, Ke Q, Wang L, Cao Y, Liu J Abstract Aim: To evaluate the prognostic significance of C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (CAR) for clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Material and Methods. Eligible studies were searched by PubMed, MedLine, the Cochrane Library, from January 1, 2000, to June 30, 2019, investigating the prognostic value of CAR in patients with HCC. Primary endpoint was OS. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine the effect size. Results: 7 records including 2208 patients published since 2014 were enrolled into our me...
Source: Disease Markers - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Dis Markers Source Type: research
Authors: Denisenko YK, Kytikova OY, Novgorodtseva TP, Antonyuk MV, Gvozdenko TA, Kantur TA Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a worldwide tendency to increase and depends on many components, which explains the complexity of diagnosis, approaches to the prevention, and treatment of this pathology. Insulin resistance (IR) is the crucial cause of the MetS pathogenesis, which develops against the background of abdominal obesity. In light of recent evidence, it has been shown that lipids, especially fatty acids (FAs), are important signaling molecules that regulate the signaling pathways of insulin and inflammatory ...
Source: Journal of Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Tags: J Obes Source Type: research
Authors: Motswagole B, Jackson J, Kobue-Lekalake R, Maruapula S, Mongwaketse T, Kwape L, Thomas T, Swaminathan S, Kurpad AV, Jackson M Abstract Dietary patterns and their association with general and central obesity among adult women were studied using a cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling in urban and rural areas nationwide in Botswana. The participants in the study were adult women (N = 1019), 18-75 years old. The dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis, and their associations with the body mass index and the weight-for-height ratio were examined. Fact...
Source: Journal of Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Tags: J Obes Source Type: research
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