Monoclonal Antibodies Against Bacillus Anthracis Antigens

Anthrax, whether resulting from natural or bioterrorist-associated exposure, is a constant threat to human health. Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. It is surrounded by a polypeptide capsule of poly-gamma-D-glutamic acid (gamma-D-PGA), which is essential for virulence, is poorly immunogenic and has anti-phagocytic properties. Antibodies to the capsule have been shown to enhance phagocytosis and killing of encapsulated bacilli. The lethality of anthrax is primarily the result of the effects of anthrax toxin, which has 3 components: a receptor-binding protein known as " protective antigen " (PA) and 2 catalytic proteins known as " lethal factor " (LF) and " edema factor " (EF). Although production of an efficient anthrax vaccine is an ultimate goal, the benefits of vaccination can be expected only if a large proportion of the population at risk is immunized. The low incidence of anthrax suggests that large-scale vaccination may not be the most efficient means of controlling this disease. In contrast, passive administration of neutralizing human or chimpanzee monoclonal antibody to a subject at risk for anthrax or exposed to anthrax could provide immediate efficacy for emergency prophylaxis against or treatment of anthrax. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against gamma-D-PGA, PA, LF and EF of anthrax were isolated from a phage display library generated from immunized chimpanzees. Two anti-PA, and two anti-LF mAbs efficiently ...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusion: This study shows that there is a knowledge gap about anthrax among the people in the affected communities. Key drivers for the anthrax outbreak such as poor cultural beliefs and practices and wildlife-livestock-human interactions were observed in all the three subcounties studied. All these findings could imply a high risk of outbreak of anthrax in Arua and Ugandan agricultural communities where the public health programs are less standardized and less effective. PMID: 33014075 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research
Emerging strains of Bacillus cereus, traditionally considered a self-limiting foodborne pathogen, have been associated with anthrax-like disease in mammals, including humans. The strains have emerged by divergent evolution and, as exchange of genetic material in the Bacillus genus occurs naturally, it is possible that further isolates will be identified in the future. The strains vary in their genotypes and phenotypes, combining traits of both B. cereus and B. anthracis species. Cases of anthrax-like disease associated with these strains result in similar symptoms and mortality rates as those caused by B. anthracis. The st...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax disease, presents with high mortality, and has been at the center of bioweapon efforts. The only currently U.S. FDA-approved vaccine to prevent anthrax in humans is anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA), which is protective in several animal models and induces neutralizing antibodies against protective antigen (PA), the cell-binding component of anthrax toxin. However, AVA requires a five-course regimen to induce immunity, along with an annual booster, and is composed of undefined culture supernatants from a PA-secreting strain. In addition, it appears to be ineffective against...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
Anthrax, whether resulting from natural or bioterrorist-associated exposure, is a constant threat to human health. The lethality of anthrax is primarily the result of the effects of anthrax toxin, which has 3 components: a receptor-binding protein known as " protective antigen " (PA) and 2 catalytic proteins known as " lethal factor " (LF) and " edema factor " (EF). Although production of an efficient anthrax vaccine is an ultimate goal, the benefits of vaccination can be expected only if a large proportion of the population at risk is immunized. The low incidence of anthrax suggests that larg...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant global consequences, with healthcare systems stretched to their limits, a growing death toll, and economic devastation as economies came grinding to a halt. The pandemic and its aftereffects will be with u...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Exclusive Medicine Public Health Source Type: blogs
I live-tweeted a fascinating and perhaps rather depressing meeting with William Haseltine via a Reuters Newsmaker Broadcast. His talk was upbeat but the message does not offer a positive outlook unless we can collaborate internationally to identify, trace, and isolate and go back to early antivirals to treat people urgently. A vaccine will probably never be found, we must stay on top of this virus when we get communities under control. Moreover, we must recognise that another emergent pathogen could appear any time. These are essentially my notes from Haseltines’s talk. Might we ever achieve herd immunity? There is n...
Source: David Bradley Sciencebase - Songs, Snaps, Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Sciencebase Source Type: blogs
I live-tweeted a fascinating and perhaps rather depressing meeting with William Haseltine via a Reuters Newsmaker Broadcast. His talk was upbeat but the message does not offer a positive outlook unless we can collaborate internationally to identify, trace, and isolate and go back to early antivirals to treat people urgently. A vaccine will probably never be found, we must stay on top of this virus when we get communities under control. Moreover, we must recognise that another emergent pathogen could appear any time. These are essentially my notes from Haseltines’s talk. Might we ever achieve herd immunity? There is n...
Source: David Bradley Sciencebase - Songs, Snaps, Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Sciencebase Source Type: blogs
Here’s betting you wouldn’t want anyone blowing smallpox scabs up your nose. But you might feel differently if you lived in 15th century China. Long ago, the Chinese recognized that people who had contracted smallpox once were immune to reinfection. They came up with the idea of preserving scabs from individuals who had suffered mild cases, drying them out, crushing them to a powder and blowing them up the nostril. For boys it was the right nostril, for girls it was the left because, well, 15th century. That is how the story of vaccines usually begins, though that version is decidedly incomplete. For one thing,...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Explainer health Source Type: news
IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 3094: The Landscape of Anthrax Prevention and Control: Stakeholders’ Perceptive in Odisha, India International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph17093094 Authors: Krushna Chandra Sahoo Sapna Negi Deepika Barla Goldi Badaik Sunita Sahoo Madhusmita Bal Arun Kumar Padhi Sanghamitra Pati Debdutta Bhattacharya The prevalence and outbreaks of anthrax are interlinked with the animal-environment-human context, which signifies the need for collaborative, trans-disciplinary and multi-sectoral approaches for the prevention and control of anthrax...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our results offer important insights to how anthrax DNA vaccine delivery by intradermal electroporation affects the immune response and biodistribution of DNA vaccine. Therefore, it may provide valuable information for the development of effective DNA vaccines against anthrax infection. PMID: 32286944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Drug Delivery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Deliv Source Type: research
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