Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 997: Inhibitory Effects of Laminaria japonica Fucoidans Against Noroviruses

In this study, the inhibitory effects of fucoidans from brown algae, Laminaria japonica (LJ), Undaria pinnatifida and Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll, were evaluated against murine norovirus (MNoV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and HuNoV. Pretreatment of MNoV or FCV with the fucoidans at 1 mg/mL showed high antiviral activities, with 1.1 average log reductions of viral titers in plaque assays. They also showed significant inhibition on the binding of the P domains of HuNoV GII.4 and GII.17 to A- or O-type saliva and the LJ fucoidan was the most effective, reaching 54–72% inhibition at 1 mg/mL. In STAT1−/− mice infected with MNoV, oral administration of the LJ fucoidan, composed of mainly sulfated fucose and minor amounts of glucose and galactose, improved the survival rates of mice and significantly reduced the viral titers in their feces. Overall, these results provide the LJ fucoidan can be used to reduce NoV outbreaks.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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ConclusionThis study suggests that norovirus can survive being ejected even within small far-reaching droplets at concentrations capable of eliciting infection. Such droplets could easily go unnoticed and be overlooked during cleaning, adding to the challenge of controlling norovirus outbreaks.
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionThis study suggests that Norovirus can survive being ejected even within small far-reaching droplets at concentrations capable of eliciting infection. Such droplets could easily go un-noticed and be overlooked during cleaning, adding to the challenge of controlling Norovirus outbreaks.
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Romalde Viral agents of human gastroenteritis affect people of all ages across the globe. As a mainly self-limiting disease, it is difficult to evaluate the real prevalence of etiological agents circulating in each region. Many of the analyzed outbreaks are caused by viruses of the family Caliciviridae, especially the genus Norovirus (NoV). Most studies have focused on other enteric viruses, leaving sapovirus (SaV) underestimated as an important emerging human threat. This one-year study analyzed clinical samples from hospital outpatients with acute gastroenteritis in Spain, with the aim of revealing the importance of...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
e; MJ Abstract Enteric viruses have been recognized as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis and hepatitis outbreaks around the world. Understanding their prevalence and persistence in the environment is important for the effective control of these infections. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient recovery procedure for viral infectious particles from agricultural soils. Samples (25 g) of soil (black earth soil, loamy soil, and sandy soil) were spiked with murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), mixed with five different buffers and viral genetic material was extracted by 3 ...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
Norovirus is a small, non-enveloped, positive stranded RNA virus in the Caliciviridae family. Infection results in diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever lasting 1-3 days, although only 10-12% of individuals seek medical attention [1]. Norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and causes outbreaks in hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and other closed settings [2 –5]. There are an estimated 19-21 million norovirus cases in the United States every year [6]. Outbreaks of norovirus not only confer significant morbidity but have also been shown to increase all-cause mortality, part...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2018 Source:Food Control, Volume 91 Author(s): Garam Bae, Jeongwon Kim, Hyojin Kim, Jong Hyeon Seok, Dan Bi Lee, Kyung Hyun Kim, Mi Sook Chung Kimchi, a food made of seasoned vegetables is probiotic-rich when fermented. Recent increases in the consumption of commercially-made kimchi have resulted in norovirus outbreaks in schools where freshly-prepared kimchi is served. We previously showed that black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract (RCS), inactivated murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral effects of RCS on MNV and FCV in...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Abstract Carpets and other soft surfaces have been associated with prolonged and reoccurring human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks. Environmental hygiene programs are important to prevent and control HuNoV outbreaks. Despite our knowledge of HuNoV transmission via soft surfaces, no commercially available disinfectants have been evaluated on carpets. Our aim was to adapt a current standardized method for virucidal testing by assessing two disinfection technologies, silver dihydrogen citrate (SDC) and steam vapor, against one HuNoV surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV), on wool and nylon carpets. First, we evaluated the e...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
ConclusionsNoV GII has become the main cause of virus-infected AGE in Pudong New Area, Shanghai. The predominant genotypes of NoV GII were GII.17 and GII.4. Comprehensive laboratory-based surveillance is important for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Identification of emerging new genotypes is also crucial for the prevention and control of NoV-infected AGE.
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Carpet been attributed to prolonged and reoccurring outbreaks of human noroviruses (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Viral recovery from environmental surfaces, such as carpet, remains undeveloped. Our aim was to determine survival of HuNoV surrogates on an understudied environmental surface, carpet. First, we measured the zeta potential and absorption capacity of wool and nylon carpet fibers, then developed a mini-spin column elution method (MSC), and lastly characterized the survival of HuNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), over 60 days under...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
The objective of this study is to apply machine learning techniques first to determine environmental factors governing outbreaks and then to develop prediction models for Louisiana Coast, which is highly prone to epidemics.
Source: Annals of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: Infectious Disease Source Type: research
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