Immunoprophylaxis pharmacotherapy against canine leishmaniosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of vaccines approved in European Union.

Immunoprophylaxis pharmacotherapy against canine leishmaniosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of vaccines approved in European Union. Vaccine. 2020 Aug 31;: Authors: Calzetta L, Pistocchini E, Ritondo BL, Roncada P, Palma E, di Cave D, Mattei M, Britti D Abstract Leishmania (L.) infantum is a vector-borne parasite currently endemic in several Southern countries of European Union (EU), and dogs represent the main reservoir and hosts. Data from clinical trials are inconsistent with respect to the efficacy of vaccination against L. infantum infection. Therefore, a quantitative synthesis via pairwise meta-analysis was performed in agreement with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) to increase the strength of evidence and assess the real efficacy profile of vaccines against L. infantum currently approved in EU. Data obtained from 1,394 dogs were extracted from 10 studies. The overall analysis indicated that vaccination is significantly effective in protecting against L. infantum infection (RR 0.40, 95%CI 0.23-0.72; I2 70%; P 
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

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Conclusions/SignificanceOur findings confirm LST as a good tool for assessingL.major cryptic infection. However, the instability of the LST positivity in new foci should be considered as an important confounder of the outcome of this infection when developing a research protocol for vaccine trial.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Yu Y, Zhao P, Cao L, Gong P, Yuan S, Yao X, Guo Y, Dong H, Jiang W Abstract Leishmaniasis is a prevalent cause of death and animal morbidity in underdeveloped countries of endemic area. However, there is few vaccine and effective drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are involved in the innate immune response in many organisms and are being developed as novel drugs against parasitic infections. In the present study, we synthesized a 5-amino acid peptide REDLK, which mutated the C-terminus of Pseudomonas exotoxin, to identify its effect on the Leishmania tarentolae. Promastigotes were incubated with different conce...
Source: Korean Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Korean J Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract Leishmaniasis is one of the six entities on the list of most important diseases of the World Health Organization/Tropical Disease Research (WHO/TDR). After Malaria, it is one of the most prevalent and lethal parasitic diseases. VL is one of the most fatal forms of this disease, especially if left untreated. The drugs that are currently available for the treatment of this disease are expensive, toxic or no longer effective especially in endemic regions. Currently no vaccine has been developed to immunize humans against this disease. The major problems with the current drugs are the development of resistanc...
Source: Current Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by dimorphic Leishmania species is a parasitic disease with high socioeconomic burden in endemic areas worldwide. Sustaining control of VL in terms of proper and prevailing immu...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
In this study, we screened the antileishmanial activity, selectivity, morphological alterations, cell cycle progression and apoptotic potentials of six Pathogen box compounds from Medicine for Malaria Venture (MMV) againstLeishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. From this study, five of the compounds showed great promise as lead chemotherapeutics based on their high selectivity against theLeishmania donovani parasite when tested against the murine mammalian macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line (with a therapeutic index ranging between 19 –914 (promastigotes) and 1–453 (amastigotes)). The cell cycle progress...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In this study we produced and purified polyclonal antibody against attenuated and wild type leishmania infantum in dogs. Anti-leishmania in dog serums precipitated with ammonium sulphate. The IgG recovered from ammonium sulphate precipitation was subject to ion exchange chromatography (IEC) and the purity of IgG was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reduced condition. The purity of proteins were above 95% and then purified IgG was conjugated with FITC. We determined optimum titer of dog IgG by observation parasites under fluorescent microscope. The optimum dilution of ...
Source: Human Antibodies - Category: Biochemistry Tags: Hum Antibodies Source Type: research
Evaluation of canine leishmaniosis vaccine CaniLeish® under field conditions in native dog populations from an endemic Mediterranean area - a randomized controlled trial. Acta Trop. 2020 Feb 05;:105387 Authors: Velez R, Domenech E, Rodríguez-Cortés A, Barrios D, Tebar S, Fernández-Arévalo A, Aguilar R, Dobaño C, Alberola J, Cairó J, Gállego M Abstract Dog vaccination is considered an effective way of reducing Leishmania infantum infection incidence in the canine population, as well as its transmission to humans. However, the use of partially effecti...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Authors: Gabriel Á, Valério-Bolas A, Palma-Marques J, Mourata-Gonçalves P, Ruas P, Dias-Guerreiro T, Santos-Gomes G Abstract This review is aimed at providing a comprehensive outline of the immune response displayed against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the more common zoonotic infection caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Although of polymorphic clinical presentation, classically CL is characterized by leishmaniotic lesions on the face and extremities of the patients, which can be ulcerative, and even after healing can lead to permanent injuries and disfigurement, affecting ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Abstract Effective diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, together with the study of vectors and reservoirs, can lead to a better understanding of the parasite transmission dynamics and the development of more efficient control measures. Recent studies have applied new methodologies and biomarkers, and these have contributed to the early and rapid diagnosis of the disease; assessment of success of pharmacological treatments; efficient monitoring of immunosuppressed individuals; and to population screening for field trials of vaccine efficacy. This opinion article proposes an update to the diagnostic to...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated cellular and humoral immune responses induced by our newly designed multi-epitope vaccine in BALB/c mice. Four antigenic proteins, including histone H1, sterol 24-c-methyltransferase (SMT),Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein (LiHy), andLeishmania-specific antigenic protein (LSAP) were chosen for the prediction of potential immunodominant epitopes. Moreover, to enhance vaccine immunogenicity, two toll-like receptors 4  (TLR4) agonists, resuscitation-promoting factors ofMycobacterium tuberculosis (RpfE and RpfB), were employed as the built-in adjuvants. Immunization with the designed mul...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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