Early immune suppression leads to uncontrolled mite proliferation and potent host inflammatory responses in a porcine model of crusted versus ordinary scabies

by Sajad A. Bhat, Shelley F. Walton, Tomer Ventura, Xiaosong Liu, James S. McCarthy, Stewart T. G. Burgess, Kate E. Mounsey Scabies is a neglected tropical disease of global significance. Our understanding of host-parasite interactions has been limited, particularly in crusted scabies (CS), a severe clinical manifestation involving hyper-infestation ofSarcoptes scabiei mites. Susceptibility to CS may be associated with immunosuppressive conditions but CS has also been seen in cases with no identifiable risk factor or immune deficit. Due to ethical and logistical difficulties with undertaking research on clinical patients with CS, we adopted a porcine model which parallels human clinical manifestations. Transcriptomic analysis using microarrays was used to explore scabies pathogenesis, and to identify early events differentiating pigs with ordinary (OS) and crusted scabies. Pigs with OS (n = 4), CS (n = 4) and non-infested controls (n = 4) were compared at pre-infestation, weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8 post-infestation. In CS relative to OS, there were numerous differentially expressed genes including pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL17A, IL8, IL19, IL20 and OSM) and chemokines involved in immune cell activation and recruitment (CCL20, CCL27 and CXCL6). The influence of genes associated with immune regulation (CD274/PD-L1 and IL27), immune signalling (TLR2, TLR8) and antigen presentation (RFX5, HLA-5 and HLA-DOB) were highlighted in the early host response to CS. We observed similarities ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Journal of Genetics and GenomicsAuthor(s): Chengqi Wang, Justin Gibbons, Swamy R. Adapa, Jenna Oberstaller, Xiangyun Liao, Min Zhang, John H. Adams, Rays H.Y. Jiang
Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that CZP can be administered safely and effectively to treat both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis irrespective of previous treatments with biologic agents. PMID: 33034437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia - Category: Dermatology Tags: G Ital Dermatol Venereol Source Type: research
Authors: Abdeta D, Kebede N, Giday M, Terefe G, Abay SM Abstract Microbial resistance to the few conventional antitrypanosomal drugs, increasing resistance of vectors to insecticides, lack of effective vaccines, and adverse effects of the existing antitrypanosomal drugs justify the urgent need for effective, tolerable, and affordable drugs. We assessed antitrypanosomal effects of the hydromethanolic extract of Echinops kebericho Mesfin roots against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate using in vitro and in vivo techniques. Parasite load, packed cell volume (PCV), body weight, and rectal temperature in Swiss albino...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the crude extract of A. hispidum DC, one of the plants used traditionally to treat malaria, inhibits the growth of P. falciparum in vitro and could be a potential source of antimalarial drug. The report has highlighted genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the selected plant extracts on human leukocytes as well. PMID: 33029160 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
(Nagoya University) Using the model Orobanchaceae parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum, scientists have discerned the molecular mechanisms underlying plant parasitism and cross-species grafting, pinpointing enzymeβ-1,4-glucanase (GH9B3) as an important contributor to both phenomena. Targeting this enzyme may help control plant parasitism in crops.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news
Conclusions: The low prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriage by the children living in the Cape Coast Metropolis suggests that the malaria control interventions in place in CCMA are highly effective and that additional malaria control interventions are required for the KEEA district to reduce the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers. No molecular evidence of P. ovale and P. vivax was identified in the afebrile children sampled from the selected schools. PMID: 33029151 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research
Conditions:   Psoriasis;   Covid19 Intervention:   Sponsor:   Cairo University Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Conclusion: This large study did not support that a high intake of fibre and/or a low intake of meat had a high impact on the risk of late-onset CID. PMID: 33029091 [PubMed - in process]
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research
Study seeks to compare microbiomes of our ancestors for clues to modern diseasesResearchers working knee-deep in 14th- and 15th-century latrines have found that bacterial DNA from human excrement can last for centuries and provide clues to how our gut contents have changed significantly since medieval times.Analysis of two cesspits, one in Jerusalem and the other in the Latvian capital, Riga, could help scientists understand if changes to our microbiome – the genetic makeup of the bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites and other microbes living inside us – affect modern-day afflictions.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Science Biology Microbiology Medical research Israel Archaeology Middle East and North Africa World news Source Type: news
Conditions:   Psoriasis;   Covid19 Intervention:   Sponsor:   Cairo University Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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