Effectiveness of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against radiographic pneumonia among children in rural Bangladesh: A case-control study.

CONCLUSIONS: Clinic control analyses show PCV10 prevented radiographic pneumonia in Bangladesh, especially among younger children receiving three doses. While both analyses were underpowered, community control enrollment - compared to clinic controls - was more difficult in a complex, pluralistic healthcare system. Future studies in comparable settings may consider alternative study designs. PMID: 32873404 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: After implementation of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccination program in US children, and despite the herd protection observed in US adults, a persistent burden of PCV13-type CAP remains in this population. PMID: 31072732 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
We examined the effect of 10-valent PCV on the incidence of pneumonia in Kenya.MethodsWe linked prospective hospital surveillance for clinically-defined WHO severe or very severe pneumonia at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, from 2002 to 2015, to population surveillance at Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, comprising 45 000 children younger than 5 years. Chest radiographs were read according to a WHO standard. A 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in Kenya in January, 2011. In Kilifi, there was a three-dose catch-up campaign for infants (aged
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Conclusions: -Infection with macrolide resistant pneumococcus led to a worse outcome in bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia in our series.-The influence of macrolide resistance in the outocomes is still an open question in BPP.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research
Abstract Community-acquired pneumonia is one of the most common infections seen in emergency department patients. There is a wide spectrum of disease severity and viral pathogens are common. After a careful history and physical examination, chest radiographs may be the only diagnostic test required. The first step in management is risk stratification, using a validated clinical decision rule and serum lactate, followed by early antibiotics and fluid resuscitation when indicated. Antibiotics should be selected with attention to risk factors for multidrug-resistant respiratory pathogens. Broad use of pneumococcal va...
Source: The Medical Clinics of North America - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Emerg Med Clin North Am Source Type: research
Community-acquired pneumonia is one of the most common infections seen in emergency department patients. There is a wide spectrum of disease severity and viral pathogens are common. After a careful history and physical examination, chest radiographs may be the only diagnostic test required. The first step in management is risk stratification, using a validated clinical decision rule and serum lactate, followed by early antibiotics and fluid resuscitation when indicated. Antibiotics should be selected with attention to risk factors for multidrug-resistant respiratory pathogens. Broad use of pneumococcal vaccine in adults an...
Source: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
By SAURABH JHA Of my time arguing with doctors, 30 % is spent convincing British doctors that their American counterparts aren’t idiots, 30 % convincing American doctors that British doctors aren’t idiots, and 40 % convincing both that I’m not an idiot. A British doctor once earnestly asked whether American physicians carry credit card reading machines inside their white coats. Myths about the NHS can be equally comical. British doctors don’t prostate every morning in deference to the NHS, like the citizens of Oceania sang to Big Brother in Orwell’s dystopia. Nor, in their daily rounds, do the...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: OP-ED Uncategorized AlfieEvans Source Type: blogs
Discussion Normal kidneys regulate water balance to maintain a plasma osmolality of 275-290 mOsm/kg normally. Thirst and arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are the primary regulators of plasma osmolality. ADH is made in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. ADH acts on the kidney’s distal collecting duct to increase water reabsorption. ADH is appropriately released in hypovolemic states, such as dehydration caused by gastroenteritis. ADH has an ~10 minute half-life and therefore can respond to rapid changes in volume status. Sodium balance is regulated by aldosterone (as part...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Conclusion: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella, and influenza constitute the most common etiological agents for north Indian adults with CAP requiring hospitalization. Appropriate antibiotic therapy and preventive strategies such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination need to be considered in appropriate groups.
Source: Lung India - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the limited utility of blood PCR testing for S. pneumoniae in pediatric patients without radiographic evidence pneumonia or empyema. Moreover, we report that PCR may be a useful diagnostic tool when blood cultures are negative because of antimicrobial therapy before sampling. Given that the incidence of pneumococcal disease has decreased considerably in recent years, justification of S. pneumoniae PCR requisition is necessary. Hence, new guidelines for pediatric pneumococcal blood PCR testing have been introduced at the Irish Meningitis and Sepsis Reference Laboratory.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
AbstractIn this prospective, observational study on previously healthy children92% in multivariate logistic regression, OR 1.09 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.14) and OR 0.23 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.82), respectively. Combining high CRP values (>80  mg/L) and elevated white blood cell (WBC) count provided specificity>85%, positive likelihood ratios>3, but sensitivity
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
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