Therapies and Vaccines Based on Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Systemic Fungal Infections

Treatment modalities for systemic mycoses are still limited. Currently, the main antifungal 18 therapeutics include polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. However, even in the setting of 19 appropriate administration of antifungals, mortality rates remain unacceptably high. Moreover, 20 antifungal therapy is expensive, treatment periods can range from weeks to years, and toxicity 21 is also a serious concern. In recent years, the increased number of immunocompromised 22 individuals has contributed to the high global incidence of systemic fungal infections. Given 23 the high morbidity and mortality rates, the complexity of treatment strategies, drug toxicity, 24 and the worldwide burden of disease, there is a need for new and efficient therapeutic means 25 to combat invasive mycoses. One promising avenue that is actively being pursued is 26 nanotechnology, to develop new antifungal therapies and efficient vaccines, since it allows for 27 a targeted delivery of drugs and antigens, which can reduce toxicity and treatment costs. The 28 goal of this review is to discuss studies using nanoparticles to develop new therapeutic options, 29 including vaccination methods, to combat systemic mycoses caused by Candida sp., 30 Cryptococcus sp., Paracoccidioides sp., Histoplasma sp., Coccidioides sp., and Aspergillus sp., 31 in addition to providing important information on the use of different types of nanoparticles, 32 nanocarriers and their corresponding mechanisms of action.
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Abstract The main aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an air membrane bioreactor (aMBR) for the treatment of gas-phase methanol. A laboratory-scale hollow fiber aMBR was operated for 150 days, at inlet methanol concentrations varying between 2 and 30 g m-3 and at empty bed residence times (EBRT) of 30, 10 and 5 s. Under steady-state conditions, a maximum methanol removal efficiency (RE) of 98% was obtained at an EBRT of 30 s and a decrease in RE of methanol was observed at lower EBRTs. On increasing the inlet loading rate, some portion of gas-phase MeOH was stripped into the li...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Emergency-use authorizations, a formerly obscure corner of regulatory law, have become a centerpiece of the government ’s response to the pandemic.
Source: NYT - Category: American Health Authors: Tags: your-feed-science Coronavirus Risks and Safety Concerns Food and Drug Administration Hahn, Stephen M (1960- ) Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Vaccination and Immunization Clinical Trials Drugs (Pharmaceuticals) your-feed-health your-feed-healthc Source Type: news
Authors: Kelly BT, Pennington KM, Limper AH Abstract Introduction: Fungal infections are increasingly encountered in clinical practice due to more favorable environmental conditions and increasing prevalence of immunocompromised individuals. The diagnostic approach for many fungal pathogens continues to evolve. Herein, we outline available diagnostic tests for the most common fungal infections with a focus on recent advances and future directions.Areas covered: We discuss the diagnostic testing methods for angioinvasive molds (Aspergillus spp. and Mucor spp.), invasive yeast (Candida spp. and Cryptococcus sp.), Pne...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research
Conclusion and Perspectives CYP51 plays a crucial role in fungal invasive growth, hyphae formation and virulence, and inhibitors targeting CYP51 have always been an important component of antifungal agents. Further researches on fungal CYP51s might set about from the following aspects: First, while the detailed crystal structures of several susceptible pathogenic fungi CYP51 have been elaborated, those of drug-resistant variants are still in hypothesis. If those structures were elucidated, targeting at common drug-resistant CYP51 protein variants could probably be promising. Second, it deserves more in-depth researches to...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ConclusionAlthough the number of fungal species causing CNS mycosis is increasing, only some possess well-defined treatment standards (e.g., cryptococcal meningitis and CNS aspergillosis). The early diagnosis of fungal infection, accompanied by identification of the etiological factor, is needed to allow the selection of effective therapy in patients with FIs-CNS and limit their high mortality.
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsVT-1598 demonstratedin vitro activity against yeasts, moulds and endemic fungi, which was maintained against isolates that had reduced susceptibility to other antifungals. Further studies are warranted to evaluate thein vivo efficacy of VT-1598 against various fungal pathogens.
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Most systemic fungal infections are caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens in immunocompromised hosts. However, invasive disease can occur in immunocompetent individuals if the exposure dose is high or with primary (dimorphic) fungal pathogens (causes of endemic mycoses include Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Paracoccidioides and Talaromyces spp.). Systemic fungal infections usually originate either in the lungs (Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Mucorales spp., as a result of inhalation) or from endogenous flora (Candida spp.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Fungal infections Source Type: research
(VCZ) is a second generation triazole that is an antifungal agent used in human and veterinary medicine to treat systemic fungal infections. Approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) in 2002, it is a synthetic derivative of fluconazole with changes to the chemical structure that resulted in a greater antifungal spectrum when compared to fluconazole.1 In human medicine, VCZ has an enhanced spectrum of activity that includes Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Cryptococcus spp., dimorphic fungi (e.g., Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum), and filamentous fungi (e.g., F...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Source Type: research
(VCZ) is a second generation triazole that is an antifungal agent used in human and veterinary medicine to treat systemic fungal infections. Approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) in 2002, it is a synthetic derivative of fluconazole with changes to the chemical structure that resulted in a greater antifungal spectrum when compared to fluconazole.1 In human medicine, VCZ has an enhanced spectrum of activity that includes Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Cryptococcus spp., dimorphic fungi (e.g., Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum), and filamentous fungi (e.g., F...
Source: Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Aspergillus | Candida | Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) | Fungal Infections | Microbiology | Nanotechnology | Study | Toxicology | Vaccines