The Guardian view on African success: a step closer to conquering polio | Editorial

We are tantalisingly close to eradicating the disease. Things may slip backwards because of science, thugs and exponents of ignorancePolio arrives, if it announces itself at all, as a high temperature. Or a sore throat. Maybe a headache, or an upset stomach. It can go within a week or so, and be mistaken for flu. It is transmitted by poor hygiene, largely affects children under five, and many don ’t realise they’ve had it. In 5-10% of cases, however, the virus affects the nerves, paralysing the legs in particular; sometimes it reaches the lungs. For most, this is temporary. For others –30 years ago, this was 350,000 children a year– paralysis is permanent, and if it is of the lungs, they die. No one who has seen the effects of polio forgets.In the early 20th century epidemics were frequent; in the United States transmission was blamed oneverything fromcats to blueberries to Italian immigrants. By the early 1950s, the US public ranked it second as itsworst fear after nuclear war. When, in 1955, a vaccine was developed, the British held street parties. The numbers of cases dropped immediately. In 1960, Czechoslovakia wasfirst to declare eradication. The last recorded case of naturally occurring polio in the UK was in 1984. Polio was declared gone in the Americas in 1994; in the western Pacific region (including China) in 2000; in Europe in 2002; India and south-east Asia in 2014. Last week,Africa joined their number. Only Pakistan and Afghanistan remain....
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Polio Vaccines and immunisation Children Pakistan Afghanistan Hepatitis B Taliban Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Health Medical research Science South and Central Asia Society Source Type: news

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Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Shreeram Akilesh, Cynthia C. Nast, Michifumi Yamashita, Kammi Henriksen, Vivek Charu, Megan L. Troxell, Neeraja Kambham, Erika Bracamonte, Donald Houghton, Naila I. Ahmed, Chyi Chyi Chong, Bijin Thajudeen, Shehzad Rehman, Firas Khoury, Jonathan E. Zuckerman, Jeremy Gitomer, Parthassarathy C. Raguram, Shanza Mujeeb, Ulrike Schwarze, M. Brendan Shannon
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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Source: Reumatologia Clinica - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
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Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
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Source: Personality and Individual Differences - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Conclusion: By underlining the gaps of knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding of nurses working in NICUs, this study provides an insight into what needs to be improved, with the aim of promoting higher rates of breastfeeding in the preterm population.What is Known:•Breastfeeding is particularly challenging in the preterm population, despite its universally recognized health benefits.•Improving healthcare professionals ’ knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding has been shown to be crucial for promoting breastfeeding in NICUs.What is New:•Our results provide useful insight into nurses ’ ...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
This study therefore investigated the impacts of RRCC on air pollution based on detailed household heating data obtained from intensive face-to-face interviews in Shandong province, China. The total contributions and specific contributions of coal, stoves, and coal-stove combinations to air pollution were simulated using the WRF-CAMx-PSAT model. The RRCC for heating had a considerable impact on air pollution, contributing 36.1, 9.1, and 16.1% of atmospheric SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 in winter, respectively. Different coal-stove combinations had different impacts on air pollution and mitigation efficiencies. The combination of bi...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Abstract Trace metals concentrations of 25 elements were determined for 22 subcomponents of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste samples representing the United States municipal solid waste (MSW) stream collected during three separate waste sorts. The subcomponent trace metal concentrations and estimated composition results were used to predict trace metal concentrations present in the overall MSW stream along with MSW compost and waste to energy (WTE) ash, which were compared to health-based standards (i.e., US EPA regional screening levels) and to values previously reported in the literature. These estimate...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
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Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
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