COVID-19: Biosafety in the Intensive Care Unit

AbstractPurpose of ReviewCOVID-19 is a new, highly transmissible disease to which healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). Information related to protection mechanisms is heterogeneous, and the infected HCWs ’ number is increasing. This review intends to summarize the current knowledge and practices to protect ICU personnel during the patient management process in the context of the current pandemic.Recent FindingsThe transmission mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 are mainly respiratory droplets, aerosols, and contact. The virus can last for a few hours suspended in the air and be viable on surfaces for several days. Some procedures carried out in the ICU can generate aerosols. The shortage of respirators, such as the N95, has generated an increase in the demand for other protective equipment in critical care settings.SummaryThe probability of transmission depends on the characteristics of the pathogen, the availability of quality personal protective equipment, and the human factors associated with the performance of health workers. It is necessary to have knowledge of the virus and availability of the best possible personal protection equipment, develop skills for handling equipment, and develop non-technical skills during all intensive care process; this can be achieved through structured training.
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

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tti The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is leading to the worst health crisis of this century. It emerged in China during late 2019 and rapidly spread all over the world, producing a broad spectrum of clinical disease severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to death (4.3 million victims so far). Consequently, the scientific research is devoted to investigating the mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis to both identify specific therapeutic drugs and develop vaccines. Although immunological mechanisms driving COVID-19 pathogenesis are still largely unknown, new understanding has emerged about the innate...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
gri Edison Luiz Durigon Kathryn A. Hanley Nikos Vasilakis Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda Maurício Lacerda Nogueira Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is responsible for the worst pandemic of the 21st century. Like all human coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 originated in a wildlife reservoir, most likely from bats. As SARS-CoV-2 has spread across the globe in humans, it has spilled over to infect a variety of non-human animal species in domestic, farm, and zoo settings. Additionally, a broad range of species, inclu...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Communication Source Type: research
COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is responsible for a global pandemic that can cause severe infections in children, especially those with comorbid conditions. Here, we report a case of a child with a newly diagnosed medulloblastoma, Fanconi Anemia, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Through multidisciplinary care coordination and meticulous planning, we were able to safely initiate this patient’s oncology care and implement a long-term model to address the patient’s care. This approach could be replicated with any newly diagnosed pediatric patient that requires monitoring...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology - Category: Hematology Tags: Online Articles: Clinical and Laboratory Observations Source Type: research
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 21:198579. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198579. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe SARS-CoV2 mediated Covid-19 pandemic has impacted humankind at an unprecedented scale. While substantial research efforts have focused towards understanding the mechanisms of viral infection and developing vaccines/ therapeutics, factors affecting the susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection and manifestation of Covid-19 remain less explored. Given that the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system is known to vary among ethnic populations, it is likely to affect the recognition of the virus, and in turn, the susceptibility to Cov...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Multiple pregnant women during the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic presented with mental state disorders and elevated stress levels. As mental state disorders contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes and maternal mortality, it is imperative to focus on pregnant women's psychological and psychiatric conditions during the pandemic. It seems crucial to use screening tests to make early psychiatric diagnoses.PMID:34555951 | DOI:10.1080/02646838.2021.1976402
Source: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Source Type: research
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Sep 23. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-16551-1. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThis review paper discusses the most relevant impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has infected 70 million people and caused the death of 1.58 million people since the US Food and Drug Administration issued an Emergency Use Authorization to develop a vaccine to prevent COVID-19 on December 11, 2020. COVID-19 is a global crisis that has impacted everything directly connected with human bei...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: research
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Sep 23. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-16396-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an exceptional drift of production, utilization, and disposal of personal protective equipment (PPE) and different microplastic objects for safety against the virus. Hence, we reviewed related literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA detected from household, biomedical waste, and sewage to identify possible health risks and status of existing laws, regulations, and policies regarding waste disposal in South Asian (S...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: research
Trends Genet. 2021 Sep 8:S0168-9525(21)00262-6. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2021.09.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSuperspreading and variants of concern (VOC) of the human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are the main catalyzers of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, measuring their individual impact is challenging. By examining the largest database of SARS-CoV-2 genomes The Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data [GISAID; n>1.2 million high-quality (HQ) sequences], we present evidence suggesting that superspreading has had a key role in the epidemiologic...
Source: Trends in Genetics : TIG - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Various SARS-CoV-2 like viruses have been isolated from bats in China, Thailand, and Japan, but none have a spike protein that can bind ACE2 and allow entry into human cells. Sampling of bats in Laos has now revealed the presence of such viruses. The genome of a virus called RaTG13, from Rhinolophus affinis bats in […]
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Basic virology Information ACE2 coronavirus COVID-19 Laos pandemic RaTG13 receptor binding domain SARS-CoV-2 spillover viral viruses zoonotic event Source Type: blogs
g SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent at the root of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, harbors a large RNA genome from which a tiered ensemble of subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) is generated. Comprehensive definition and investigation of these RNA products are important for understanding SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. This review summarizes the recent progress on SARS-CoV-2 sgRNA identification, characterization, and application as a viral replication marker. The significance of these findings and potential future research areas of interest are discussed.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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